Respostas impulsivas do cidadão

Espaços de protesto na cidade e câmaras de eco


  • Elsa Lankford Towson University



Câmaras de eco, Resposta impulsiva, Espacialização, Paisagem sonora de protesto, Política e som


Câmaras de eco são tanto espaços onde os sons refletem até perderem seus limites claros como maneiras pelas quais os cidadãos perdem a perspectiva, até que apenas um ponto de vista é refletido de volta. Câmaras de eco e seus equivalentes têm sido usadas em música há décadas. Em nossos meios de comunicação de massa e mídias sociais, câmaras de eco só recentemente têm ocupado as manchetes, particularmente no que antecedeu e sucedeu a eleição presidencial de 2016 nos Estados Unidos. Essas câmaras de eco físicas e culturais podem ser apreendidas e estudadas, mas e quanto aquelas câmaras de eco encontradas nas paisagens sonoras das ruas das cidades? O processo e criação da Biblioteca de Respostas Impulsivas do Cidadão tem conectado as câmaras de eco da política, democracia, mídias e das ruas da capital estadunidense. Trata-se de uma coleção de arquivos de respostas impulsivas criadas a partir de gravações dos protestos em Washington, D. C. Essa resultante tangível, apesar de conceitual, emergiu da história dos efeitos sônicos espaciais, urbanos e paisagens sonoras democráticas.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Elsa Lankford, Towson University

Elsa Lankford is an Associate Professor who teaches audio production and post-production classes in the EMF department. In addition to teaching and developing EMF and interdisciplinary classes, Elsa advises EMF students and am the faculty advisor of the Towson Audio Production Society (TAPS), the audio club which meets weekly. Elsa is the co-founder and chair for the WAMM Festival (Women And Minority in Media Festival) celebrating diversity in media production which is entering its 6th year. Elsa is an interdisciplinary artist who works in multiple media - sound, music, photography, and writing interested urban issues, particularly Baltimore City. Elsa has written published articles on urban soundscapes, created audio documentaries on urban concerns, such as the Highway to Nowhere in West Baltimore, and have mixed and composed music for films and documentaries. Elsa is currently working on writing and pre-production of her own music to be completed in Spring 2014.


AELBRECHT, Patricia S. ‘Fourth places’: The contemporary public settings for informal social interaction among strangers. Journal of Urban Design, vol. 21, n. 1, p.124-152, 2016. doi:

ANDREWS, Robin G. Coronavirus turns urban life’s roar to whisper on world’s seismographs. The New York Times. New York, Apr. 2020. Available at: Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.

APUZZO, Matt and Sharon LAFRANIERE. 13 Russians indicted as Mueller reveals effort to aid Trump campaign. The New York Times. New York, Feb. 2018. Available at: Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.

BASTOS, Marco et al. The geographic embedding of online echo chambers: Evidence from the Brexit campaign. PLoS ONE, vol. 13, n. 11, p. 1-16, Nov. 2018. doi:

BLESSER, Barry and Linda-Ruth SALTER. Spaces speak, are you listening? Experiencing aural architecture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY [echo chamber, def. 2]. (n.d.) Available at:

CAN, Arnaud et al. Accounting for the effect of diffuse reflections and fittings within street canyons, on the sound propagation predicted by ray tracing codes. Applied Acoustics, Vol. 96, p. 83-93, Sept. 2015. doi:

CHENOWITH, Elizabeth and Jeremy PRESSMAN. This is what we learned by counting the Women’s Marches. Washington Post. Washington DC, Feb. 2017. Available at:

CHUN, Christian W. Mobilities of a linguistic landscape at Los Angeles City Hall Park. Journal of Language and Politics, Vol. 13, n. 4, p. 653-674, 2014. doi:

COHEN, James N. Exploring echo-systems: how algorithms shape immersive media environments. Journal of Media Literacy Education, Vol. 10, n. 2, p.139-151, 2018.

COUNTLOVE demonstration statistics. Available at: Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.

CROWD COUNTING CONSORTIUM. (n.d.) Available at: Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.

DERUTY, Emmanuel. Creative convolution: new sounds from impulse responses. Sound on Sound. Available at: Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.

DOYLE, Peter. From ‘My Blue Heaven’ to ‘Race With the Devil’: echo, reverb and (dis)ordered space in early popular music recording. Popular Music, Vol. 23, n. 1, p. 31-49, Jan. 2004. doi:

DUBOIS, Elizabeth and Grant BLANK. The echo chamber is overstated: the moderating effect of political interest and diverse media. Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 21, n. 5, p. 729-745, 2018. doi:

GOODALE, Greg. The sonorous envelope and political deliberation. Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 99, n. 2, p. 218-224, May 2013. doi:

GOOGLE TRENDS. (n.d.) Retrieved from

GRINSPAN, Jon. How a ragtag band of reformers organized the first protest march on Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Magazine. Washington DC, May 2014. Available at: Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.

HOSKYNS, Teresa. The empty place: democracy and public space. New York: Routledge, 2014.

JACOBS, Jane. The death and life of great American cities. New York: Random House, Modern Library Edition, 1993.

JURKOWITZ, Mark, et. al. U.S. Media polarization and the 2020 election: a nation divided. Pew Research Center, Jan. 2020. Available at: Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.

KANG, Jian. Sound propagation in interconnected urban streets: a parametric study. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design Vol. 28, p. 281-294, 2001. doi:

KRIEGER, Alex. ‘Deputizing’ the streetscape. Places, Vol. 15, n. 3, p. 66, 2003. Available at:

LABELLE, Brandon. Acoustic territories: sound culture and everyday life. New York: Continuum, 2010.

LANKFORD, Elsa. Citizen Impulse Response Sound Collage, 2019. Available at: Accessed on 7 Jul 2020.

MANABE, Noriko. Urban geography, music, and protest. The revolution will not be televised: protest music after Fukushima. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. doi:

MENG, Qi and Jian KANG. The influence of crowd density on the sound environment of commercial pedestrian streets. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 511, p. 249-258, 2016. doi:

MARTINEZ, Antonio G. The noisy fallacies of psychographic targeting. Wired, March 2018. Available at: Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.

MITCHELL, Amy et. al. Political polarization and media habits: Pew Research Center, Oct. 2014. Available at: Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.

OED ONLINE [convolve, def. 1 and 2]. (2018) Oxford English Dictionary. Available at:

ONAGA, Hiroshi and Jens H. RINDEL. Acoustic characteristics of urban streets in relation to scattering caused by building facades. Applied Acoustics, Vol. 68, p. 310-325, 2007. doi:

PAIT, Heloisa and Juliana LAET. Media epiphanies: selvies and silences in São Paulo street protests. in L. Robinson, et al. (Eds) Brazil: Media from the country of the future (pp. 231-257) Emerald Publishing Limited, 2017. doi:

PARKINSON, John R. Democracy & public space: the physical sites of democratic performance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

PICAUT, Judicael, et al. Experimental study of sound propagation in a street. Applied Acoustics, Vol. 66, p. 149-173, 2005. doi:

PRESLEY, Rachel and Jason CRANE. Sonic colonizations, sound coalitions: analyzing the aural landscape of Standing Rock’s No-DAPL movement. Argumentation and Advocacy, Vol. 54, n. 4, p. 305-322, 2018. doi:

SAKAKEENY, Matt. ‘Under the bridge’: An orientation to soundscapes in New Orleans. Ethnomusicology, Vol. 54, n.1, p. 1-27, 2010. doi:

SHAFER, Jack and Tucker DOHERTY. The media bubble is worse than you think. Politico, May 2017, Available at: Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.

STERNE, Jonathan. Space within space: artificial reverb and the detachable echo. Grey Room, n. 60, 110-131, 2015. doi:

STEVENS, Quentin. The shape of urban experience: a reevaluation of Lynch’s five elements. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 33, p. 803-823, 2006. doi:

VÄLIMÄKI, V. et al. Fifty years of artificial reverberation. IEEE transactions on audio, speech, and language processing, Vol. 20, n. 5, p. 1421-1448, Jul. 2012. doi:

VALLEE, Mickey. The rhythm of echoes and echoes of violence. Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 34, n. 1, p. 97-114, 2017. doi:




Como Citar

Lankford, E. (2020). Respostas impulsivas do cidadão: Espaços de protesto na cidade e câmaras de eco. Revista Música, 20(1), 433-452.