"Me dás letras em vez de dinheiro"? Transações comerciais no Oriente Próximo e no Mediterrâneo Ocidental por volta de 1100-600 a.C.: inovação social e inibição institucional do comércio fenício

Autores

  • Eleftheria Pappa Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2448-1750.revmae.2017.133759

Palavras-chave:

Monetização, Alfabetização, Alfabeto, Fenícios, Mediterrâneo Ocidental.

Resumo

Dois dos problemas mais importantes e fundamentais na pesquisa proto-histórica e antropológica são relacionados à popularização da alfabetização e às origens do dinheiro. As razões por trás da propagação repentina e abrangente do alfabeto fenício no século VII1,VII a.C. permanecem sem solução, apesar dos debates contínuos. Ao mesmo tempo, permanece largamente ignorado na pesquisa acadêmica o paradoxo de que os fenícios, comerciantes da antiguidade por excelência, aparentemente náo usaram nenhuma forma de moeda física, apesar de possuírem redes comerciais no Mediterrâneo. No entanto, pesquisas recentes suportam o alto grau de monetização das redes comerciais fenícias, bem como o fato de que formas de "proto-moeda" circulavam no Levante pelo menos a partir do século VI11 a.C. Este artigo pretende analisar esses dois problemas de uma perspectiva totalmente nova, explorando os vínculos entre eles e testando se uma causalidade pode ser estabelecida entre a repentina divulgação da alfabetização e a ausência de moeda física na economia fenícia, com foco no Ocidente. E sugerido que o aumento da monetização foi possível através dos padrões de intercâmbio comercial estabelecidos no Próximo Oriente desde o terceiro milênio a.C., que permitiram transações usando letras de crédito (notas promissórias), com pagamentos eventuais efetuados em vários meios através de um índice estabelecido de valor (por exemplo, relativo à prata).

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Biografia do Autor

Eleftheria Pappa, Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia da Universidade de São Paulo. Doctor of Philosophy at Oxford University.

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2017-12-31

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Pappa, E. (2017). "Me dás letras em vez de dinheiro"? Transações comerciais no Oriente Próximo e no Mediterrâneo Ocidental por volta de 1100-600 a.C.: inovação social e inibição institucional do comércio fenício. Revista Do Museu De Arqueologia E Etnologia, (28). https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2448-1750.revmae.2017.133759

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