Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in children: case report and case series from an endemic area of Brazil
Keywords:Hantavirus infections, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Children, Febrile acute respiratory failure
Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is an important emergent zoonosis associated with wild rodents in Brazil, where this viral infection in children is generally rare. We present HCPS in a child from the Pantanal Biome and a review of all reported pediatric cases in Mato Grosso State, an endemic area for HCPS in Brazil. The investigation used the Information System for Notifiable Diseases database (SINAN). A 12-year-old boy was hospitalized with fever and respiratory failure and hantavirus IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA in serum samples. During the period of 1999 to 2016, 32 HCPS pediatric cases confirmed by serology were reported to SINAN with a mortality rate of 34.4%. The possibility of hantavirus infection in children with acute febrile illness associated with respiratory failure should be considered mainly in recognized endemic areas as Mato Grosso State, contradicting a hypothesis that children are more protected from lung involvement.