Development and validation of attitudes measurement scales: fundamental and practical aspects


  • Joseph F. Hair Jr. University of South Alabama
  • Marcelo L. D. S. Gabriel Universidade Ibirapuera
  • Dirceu da Silva Universidade Estadual de Campinas
  • Sergio Braga Junior Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências e Engenharia de Tupã



Business research, Scale development, Scale validation, Quantitative methods, Attitude measurement, Attitudes scale


Purpose – This paper aims to present the fundamental aspects for the development and validation (D&V) of attitudes’ measurement scale, as well as its practical aspects that are not deeply explored in books and manuals. These aspects are the results of a long experience of the authors and arduous learning with errors and mistakes. Design/methodology/approach – The nature of this paper is methodological and can be very useful for an initial reading on the theme that it rests. This paper presents four D&V stages: literature review or interviews with experts; theoretical or face validation; semantic validation or validation with possible respondents; and statistical validation. Findings – This is a methodological paper, and its main finding is the usefulness for researchers. Research limitations/implications – The main implication of this paper is to support researchers on the process of D&V of measurement scales. Practical implications – Became a step-by-step guide to researchers on the D&V of measurement scales. Social implications – Support researchers on their data collection and analysis. Originality/value – This is a practical guide, with tips from seasoned scholars to help researchers on the D&V of measurement scales


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Technical paper