Validation of the psychological safety, psychological empowerment, intrapreneurial behaviour and individual performance measurements


  • School of Business and Entrepreneurship, American University of Nigeria, Yola, Nigeria and School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia
  • School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia
  • Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Krisnadwipayana, Jakarta Timur, Indonesia and School of Tourism, Hospitality and Event Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia



Psychological empowerment, Intrapreneurial behaviour, Individual performance, Measurement validation, Psychological safety



The purpose of this study is to assess the validity of the psychological safety (PS), psychological empowerment (PE), intrapreneurial behaviour (IB) and individual performance (IP) construct measurements originally developed in Western individualistic cultures.


Proportionate stratified systematic sampling was used among the production/operations middle managers in Nigerian medium enterprises (MEs), resulting in 355 valid responses. The measurements were analysed through internal consistency analysis, content, convergent and discriminant validity analysis.


The result shows that all four construct measurements are suitable and appropriate to gauge the respective constructs in collectivistic cultures such as Nigeria.

Research limitations/implications

Cross-sectional self-reported data were used to analyse the result of this study, which may lead to common method variance.

Practical implications

Organizations, especially MEs, can use the validated measurements of this study to enhance work results in the Nigerian context.

Social implications

Collectivistic cultures can benefit from the widely used measurements of PS, PE, IB and IP despite been originally developed in Western individualistic cultures.


This paper extends the body of knowledge by validating the measurements of PS, PE, IB and IP in collectivistic cultures such as Nigeria. Measurement validation for these constructs is scarce in this context. Thus, this study will provide a consistent and efficient reference for forthcoming studies and improve the credibility and replicability of future research results in collectivistic cultures.


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