Potential and challenges for using neuroscientific tools in strategic management studies


  • Centro Universitário Unihorizontes
  • Universidade Nove de Julho
  • Universidade Federal de São Paulo
  • Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas




Neuroscientific tools, Strategic management studies, Potential, Challenges



The purpose of this study is to understand how neuroscientific tools are used and discussed in ongoing research on strategy in organizations.


The authors used a bibliometric study of bibliographic pairing to answer the research question. They collected data from the Web of Science and Scopus databases using the keywords “neuroscience*,” “neurostrategy*” and “neuroscientific*.”


This study presents a framework that relates fundamental aspects discussed in current research using neuroscientific tools: Neuroscience and its research tools in organizations; emotions and information processing; interdisciplinary application of neuroscientific tools; and moral and ethical influences in the leaders' decision-making process.

Research limitations/implications

The inclusion of neuroscientific tools in Strategic Management research is still under development. There are criticisms and challenges related to the limitations and potential to support future research.

Practical implications

Despite recognizing the potential of neuroscientific tools in the mind and brain relationship, this study suggests that at this stage, because of criticisms and challenges, they should be used as support and in addition to other traditional research techniques to assess constructs and mechanisms related to strategic decisions and choices in organizations.

Social implications

Neuroscientific methods in organizational studies can provide insights into individual reactions to ethical issues and raise challenging normative questions about the nature of moral responsibility, autonomy, intention and free will, offering multiple perspectives in the field of business ethics.


In addition to presenting the potential and challenges of using scientific tools in strategic management studies, this study helps create methodological paths for studies in strategic management.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahn, J. H., Bae, Y. S., Ju, J., & Oh, W. (2018). Attention adjustment, renewal, and equilibrium seeking in online search: an eye-tracking approach. Journal of Management Information Systems, 35(4), 1218–1250, doi: 10.1080/07421222.2018.1523595.

Anderson, B. B., Vance, A., Kirwan, C. B., Jenkins, J. L., & Eargle, D. (2016). From warning to wallpaper: Why the brain habituates to security warnings and what can be done about it. Journal of Management Information Systems, 33(3), 713–743, doi: 10.1080/07421222.2016.1243947.

Ashkanasy, N. M., Becker, W. J., & Waldman, D. A. (2014). Neuroscience and organizational behavior: Avoiding both neuro‐euphoria and neuro‐phobia. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(7), 909–919, doi: 10.1002/job.1952.

Augier, M., Fang, C., & Rindova, V. P. (2018). Introduction – behavioral strategy: a quick account. Behavioral strategy in perspective, Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Lee, N. (2019). Philosophical foundations of neuroscience in organizational research: Functional and nonfunctional approaches. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 299–331, doi: 10.1177/1094428117697042.

Bagozzi, R. P., Verbeke, W. J., Dietvorst, R. C., Belschak, F. D., van den Berg, W. E., & Rietdijk, W. J. (2013). Theory of mind and empathic explanations of Machiavellianism: a neuroscience perspective. Journal of Management, 39(7), 1760–1798, doi: 10.1177/0149206312471393.

Balthazard, P. A., Waldman, D. A., Thatcher, R. W., & Hannah, S. T. (2012). Differentiating transformational and non-transformational leaders on the basis of neurological imaging. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(2), 244–258, doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.08.002.

Becker, W. J., & Cropanzano, R. (2010). Organizational neuroscience: the promise and prospects of an emerging discipline. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(7), 1055–1059, doi: 10.1002/job.668.

Becker, W. J., & Menges, J. I. (2013). Biological implicit measures in HRM and OB: a question of how not if. Human Resource Management Review, 23(3), 219–228, doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2012.12.003.

Becker, W. J., Cropanzano, R., & Sanfey, A. G. (2011). Organizational neuroscience: Taking organizational theory inside the neural black box. Journal of Management, 37(4), 933–961, doi: 10.1177/0149206311398955.

Becker, W. J., Volk, S., & Ward, M. K. (2015). Leveraging neuroscience for smarter approaches to workplace intelligence. Human Resource Management Review, 25(1), 56–67, doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2014.09.008.

Bernard, H. R., & Ryan, G.W. (2010). Analyzing qualitative data: Systematic approaches, Thousand Oakes: SAGE publications.

Berns, G. S., & Moore, S. E. (2012). A neural predictor of cultural popularity. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(1), 154–160, doi: 10.1016/j.jcps.2011.05.001.

Bischoff, I., Neuhaus, C., Trautner, P., & Weber, B. (2013). The neuroeconomics of voting: Neural evidence of different sources of utility in voting. Journal of neuroscience. Psychology, and Economics, 6(4), 215, doi: 10.1037/npe0000016.

Borgatti, S. P., Everett, M. G., & Johnson, J. C. (2013). Analyzing social networks, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Boyatzis, R. E., Passarelli, A. M., Koenig, K., Lowe, M., Mathew, B., Stoller, J. K., & Phillips, M. (2012). Examination of the neural substrates activated in memories of experiences with resonant and dissonant leaders. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(2), 259–272, doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.08.003.

Braeutigam, S., Lee, N., & Senior, C. (2019). A role for endogenous brain states in organizational research: Moving toward a dynamic view of cognitive processes. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 332–353, doi: 10.1177/1094428117692104.

Butler, M. J., Lee, N., & Senior, C. (2017). Critical essay: Organizational cognitive neuroscience drives theoretical progress, or: the curious case of the straw man murder. Human Relations, 70(10), 1171–1190, doi: 10.1177/0018726716684381.

Button, K. S., Ioannidis, J. P., Mokrysz, C., Nosek, B. A., Flint, J., Robinson, E. S., & Munafò, M. R. (2013). Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(5), 365–376, doi: 10.1038/nrn3475.

Camus, M. C., Halelamien, N., Plassmann, H., Shimojo, S., O'Doherty, J., & Camerer, C. (2009). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right dorsolateral preforntal cortex decreases valuations during food choices. European Journal of Neuroscience, 30(10), 1980–1988, doi: 10.1097/01.wnr.0000183907.08149.14.

Canli, T., Zhao, Z., Brewer, J., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Cahill, L. (2000). Event-Related activation in the human amygdala associates with later memory for individual emotional experience. The Journal of Neuroscience, 20(19), RC99–RC99, doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.20-19-j0004.2000.

CAPES. (2019). Relatório qualis periódicos. Retrieved from www.gov.br/capes/pt-br/centrais-de-conteudo/relatorio-qualis-quimica-pdf (accessed 2 October 2021).

Carter, R. M., Meyer, J. R., & Huettel, S. A. (2010). Functional neuroimaging of intertemporal choice models: a review. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 3(1), 27, doi: 10.1037/a0018046.

Cattell, R. B. (1978). Fixing the number of factors: the most practicable psychometric procedures. The scientific use of factor analysis in behavioral and life sciences, pp. 72–91. Boston, MA: Springer. In

Ceravolo, M. G., Farina, V., Fattobene, L., Leonelli, L., & Raggetti, G. (2019). Presentational format and financial consumers' behaviour: an eye-tracking study. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 37(3), 821–837, doi: 10.1108/IJBM-02-2018-0041.

Christopoulos, G. I., Uy, M. A., & Yap, W. J. (2019). The body and the brain: Measuring skin conductance responses to understand the emotional experience. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 394–420, doi: 10.1177/1094428116681073.

Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (2013). A first course in factor analysis, Hove: Psychology Press.

Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1), 98, doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.98.

Cropanzano, R. S., & Becker, W. J. (2013). The promise and peril of organizational neuroscience: Today and tomorrow. Journal of Management Inquiry, 22(3), 306–310, doi: 10.1177/1056492613478518.

Cropanzano, R. S., Massaro, S., & Becker, W. J. (2017). Deontic justice and organizational neuroscience. Journal of Business Ethics, 144(4), 733–754, doi: 10.1007/s10551-016-3056-3.

Daugherty, T., Hoffman, E., & Kennedy, K. (2016). Research in reverse: Ad testing using an inductive consumer neuroscience approach. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 3168–3176, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.12.005.

Deitz, G. D., Royne, M. B., Peasley, M. C., & Coleman, J. T. (2016). EEG-based measures versus panel ratings. Journal of Advertising Research, 56(2), 217–227, doi: 10.2501/JAR-2016-030.

Dulleck, U., Ristl, A., Schaffner, M., & Torgler, B. (2011). Heart rate variability, the autonomic nervous system, and neuroeconomic experiments. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 4(2), 117, doi: 10.1037/a0022245.

Emonds, G., Declerck, C. H., Boone, C., Vandervliet, E. J., & Parizel, P. M. (2011). Comparing the neural basis of decision making in social dilemmas of people with different social value orientations, a fMRI study. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 4(1), 11, doi: 10.1037/a0020151.

Fabrigar, L. R., & Wegener, D. T. (2011). Exploratory factor analysis, 1 ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Federico, G., & Brandimonte, M. A. (2019). Tool and object affordances: an ecological eye-tracking study. Brain and Cognition, 135, 103582, doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2019.103582.

Federico, G., Ferrante, D., Marcatto, F., & Brandimonte, M. A. (2021). How the fear of COVID-19 changed the way we look at human faces. PeerJ, 9, doi: 10.7717/peerj.11380. e11380.

Fugate, D. L. (2007). Neuromarketing: a layman's look at neuroscience and its potential application to marketing practice. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 24(7), 385–394, doi: 10.1108/07363760710834807.

Gerpott, F. H., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Silvis, J. D., & Van Vugt, M. (2018). In the eye of the beholder? An eye-tracking experiment on emergent leadership in team interactions. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(4), 523–532, doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.11.003.

Geske, J., & Bellur, S. (2008). Differences in brain information processing between print and computer screens. International Journal of Advertising, 27(3), 399–423, doi: 10.2501/S0265048708080049.

Gountas, J., Gountas, S., Ciorciari, J., & Sharma, P. (2019). Looking beyond traditional measures of advertising impact: Using neuroscientific methods to evaluate social marketing messages. Journal of Business Research, 105, 121–135, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.07.011.

Gregor, S., Lin, A. C., Gedeon, T., Riaz, A., & Zhu, D. (2014). Neuroscience and a nomological network for the understanding and assessment of emotions in information systems research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 30(4), 13–48, doi: 10.2753/MIS0742-1222300402.

Hambrick, D. C., & Crossland, C. (2018). A strategy for behavioral strategy: Appraisal of small, midsize, and large tent conceptions of this embryonic community. Behavioral strategy in perspective, Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited.

Hannah, S. T., Balthazard, P. A., Waldman, D. A., Jennings, P., & Thatcher, R. (2013). The psychological and neurological bases of leader self-complexity and effects on adaptive decision-making. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(3), 393–411, doi: 10.1037/a0032257.

Healey, M. P., & Hodgkinson, G. P. (2014). Rethinking the philosophical and theoretical foundations of organizational neuroscience: a critical realist alternative. Human Relations, 67(7), 765–792, doi: 10.1177/0018726714530014.

Hinvest, N. S., Brosnan, M. J., Rogers, R. D., & Hodgson, T. L. (2014). fMRI evidence for procedural invariance underlying gambling preference reversals. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 7(1), 48, doi: 10.1037/npe0000007.

Hodgkinson, G. P., & Healey, M. P. (2011). Psychological foundations of dynamic capabilities: Reflexion and reflection in strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 32(13), 1500–1516, doi: 10.1002/smj.964.

Houdek, P. (2017). Puppet master: possible influence of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii on managers and employees. Academy of Management Perspectives, 31(1), 63–81, doi: 10.5465/amp.2015.0163.

Hsu, M. (2017). Neuromarketing: inside the mind of the consumer. California Management Review, 59(4), 5–22, doi: 10.1177/0008125617720208.

Hu, Q., West, R., & Smarandescu, L. (2015). The role of self-control in information security violations: Insights from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 31(4), 6–48, doi: 10.1080/07421222.2014.1001255.

Hutzler, F. (2014). Reverse inference is not a fallacy per se: Cognitive processes can be inferred from functional imaging data. NeuroImage, 84, 1061–1069, doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.12.075.

Jack, A. I., Rochford, K. C., Friedman, J. P., Passarelli, A. M., & Boyatzis, R. E. (2019). Pitfalls in organizational neuroscience: a critical review and suggestions for future research. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 421–458, doi: 10.1177/1094428117708857.

Jebb, A. T., & Tay, L. (2017). Introduction to time series analysis for organizational research: Methods for longitudinal analyses. Organizational Research Methods, 20(1), 61–94, doi: 10.1177/1094428116668035.

Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 141–151, doi: 10.1177/001316446002000116.

Karmarkar, U. R., & Plassmann, H. (2019). Consumer neuroscience: past, present, and future. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 174–195, doi: 10.1177/1094428117730598.

Kerlinger, F. N., & Lee, H. B. (2008). Foundations of behavioral research, 5 ed., Independence, KY: Wadsworth Thomson.

Konovalov, A., & Krajbich, I. (2019). Over a decade of neuroeconomics: what have we learned? Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 148–173, doi: 10.1177/1094428116644502.

Kouchaki, M., & Wareham, J. (2015). Excluded and behaving unethically: Social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(2), 547, doi: 10.1037/a0038034.

Laureiro-Martínez, D., & Brusoni, S. (2018). Cognitive flexibility and adaptive decision‐making: evidence from a laboratory study of expert decision makers. Strategic Management Journal, 39(4), 1031–1058, doi: 10.1002/smj.2774.

Laureiro-Martínez, D., Brusoni, S., Canessa, N., & Zollo, M. (2014). Understanding the exploration-exploitation dilemma: an fMRI study of attention control and decision-making performance. Strategic Management Journal, 36(3), 319–338, doi: 10.1002/smj.2221.

Laureiro-Martínez, D., Venkatraman, V., Cappa, S., Zollo, M., & Brusoni, S. (2015). Cognitive neurosciences and strategic management: Challenges and opportunities in tying the knot. Cognition and strategy, pp. 351–370. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited.

Lee, E. J., & Yun, J. H. (2019). Moral incompetency under time constraint. Journal of Business Research, 99, 438–445, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.10.043.

Lee, N., Senior, C., & Butler, M. J. (2012). The domain of organizational cognitive neuroscience: Theoretical and empirical challenges. Journal of Management, 38(4), 921–931, doi: 10.1177/0149206312439471.

Lim, W. M. (2018). Demystifying neuromarketing. Journal of Business Research, 91, 205–220, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.05.036.

Lindebaum, D. (2013a). Ethics and the neuroscientific study of leadership: a synthesis and rejoinder to Ashkanasy, Cropanzano and Becker, and McLagan. Journal of Management Inquiry, 22(3), 317–323, doi: 10.1177/1056492613478515.

Lindebaum, D. (2013b). Pathologizing the healthy but ineffective: Some ethical reflections on using neuroscience in leadership research. Journal of Management Inquiry, 22(3), 295–305, doi: 10.1177/1056492612462766.

Lindebaum, D. (2016). Critical essay: Building new management theories on sound data? The case of neuroscience. Human Relations, 69(3), 537–550, doi: 10.1177/0018726715599831.

Lindebaum, D., & Jordan, P. J. (2014a). A critique on neuroscientific methodologies in organizational behavior and management studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(7), 898–908, doi: 10.1002/job.1940.

Lindebaum, D., & Jordan, P. J. (2014b). When it can be good to feel bad and bad to feel good: Exploring asymmetries in workplace emotional outcomes. Human Relations, 67(9), 1037–1050, doi: 10.1177/0018726714535824.

Lindebaum, D., & Raftopoulou, E. (2017). What would john stuart mill say? A utilitarian perspective on contemporary neuroscience debates in leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 144(4), 813–822, doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2247-z.

Lindebaum, D., & Zundel, M. (2013). Not quite a revolution: Scrutinizing organizational neuroscience in leadership studies. Human Relations, 66(6), 857–877, doi: 10.1177/0018726713482151.

McDonald, P. (2018). Sustainability management: research insights from social cognitive neuroscience. Business Strategy and the Environment, 27(8), 1355–1367, doi: 10.1002/bse.2184.

Macoveanu, J., Ramsoy, T. Z., Skov, M., Siebner, H. R., & Fosgaard, T. R. (2016). The neural bases of framing effects in social dilemmas. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 9(1), 14, doi: 10.1037/npe0000050.

Maran, T., Furtner, M., Liegl, S., Kraus, S., & Sachse, P. (2019). In the eye of a leader: Eye-directed gazing shapes perceptions of leaders' charisma. The Leadership Quarterly, 30(6), 101337, doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2019.101337.

Mason, M. F., Dyer, R., & Norton, M. I. (2009). Neural mechanisms of social influence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110(2), 152–159, doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.04.001.

Massaro, S., & Pecchia, L. (2019). Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis: a methodology for organizational neuroscience. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 354–393, doi: 10.1177/1094428116681072.

Meißner, M., Oppewal, H., & Huber, J. (2020). Surprising adaptivity to set size changes in multi-attribute repeated choice tasks. Journal of Business Research, 111, 163–175, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.01.008.

Meyerding, S. G., & Mehlhose, C. M. (2020). Can neuromarketing add value to the traditional marketing research? An exemplary experiment with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Journal of Business Research, 107, 172–185, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.10.052.

Miller, K. D., & Tsang, E. W. (2011). Testing management theories: critical realist philosophy and research methods. Strategic Management Journal, 32(2), 139–158, doi: 10.1002/smj.868.

Minas, R. K., Potter, R. F., Dennis, A. R., Bartelt, V., & Bae, S. (2014). Putting on the thinking cap: using NeuroIS to understand information processing biases in virtual teams. Journal of Management Information Systems, 30(4), 49–82, doi: 10.2753/MIS0742-1222300403.

Molenberghs, P., Prochilo, G., Steffens, N. K., Zacher, H., & Haslam, S. A. (2017). The neuroscience of inspirational leadership: the importance of collective-oriented language and shared group membership. Journal of Management, 43(7), 2168–2194, doi: 10.1177/0149206314565242.

Moody, G. D., & Galletta, D. F. (2015). Lost in cyberspace: the impact of information scent and time constraints on stress, performance, and attitudes online. Journal of Management Information Systems, 32(1), 192–224, doi: 10.1080/07421222.2015.1029391.

Moore, C., & Gino, F. (2015). Approach, ability, aftermath: a psychological process framework of unethical behavior at work. Academy of Management Annals, 9(1), 235–289, doi: 10.5465/19416520.2015.1011522.

Murray, M. M., & Antonakis, J. (2018). An introductory guide to organizational neuroscience. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 6–16, doi: 10.1177/1094428118802621.

Nicolaou, N., & Shane, S. (2014). Biology, neuroscience, and entrepreneurship. Journal of Management Inquiry, 23(1), 98–100, doi: 10.1177/1056492613485914.

Niven, K., & Boorman, L. (2016). Assumptions beyond the science: Encouraging cautious conclusions about functional magnetic resonance imaging research on organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(8), 1150–1177, doi: 10.1002/job.2097.

Nofal, A. M., Nicolaou, N., Symeonidou, N., & Shane, S. (2018). Biology and management: a review, critique, and research agenda. Journal of Management, 44(1), 7–31, doi: 10.1177/0149206317720723.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory, 3rd ed., New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ocasio, W., & Joseph, J. (2018). The attention-based view of great strategies. Strategy Science, 3(1), 289–294, doi: 10.1287/stsc.2017.0042.

Pickersgill, M. (2013). The social life of the brain: Neuroscience in society. Current Sociology, 61(3), 322–340, doi: 10.1177/0011392113476464.

Pinazo, D., Barrós-Loscertales, A., Peris, R., Ventura-Campos, N., & Ávila, C. (2016). Neuroticism predisposes to donation more than agreeableness: an fMRI study. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 9(2), 100, doi: 10.1037/npe0000054.

Plassmann, H., O'Doherty, J., Shiv, B., & Rangel, A. (2008). Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(3), 1050–1054, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0706929105.

Pohling, R., Bzdok, D., Eigenstetter, M., Stumpf, S., & Strobel, A. (2016). What is ethical competence? The role of empathy, personal values, and the five-factor model of personality in ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(3), 449–474, doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2569-5.

Powell, T. C. (2011). Neurostrategy. Strategic Management Journal, 32(13), 1484–1499, doi: 10.1002/smj.969.

Powell, T. C., & Puccinelli, N. M. (2012). The brain as substitute for strategic organization. Strategic Organization, 10(3), 207–214, doi: 10.1177/1476127012452823.

Pozharliev, R., Verbeke, W.J., Van Strien, J.W., & Bagozzi, R.P. (2015). Merely being with you increases my attention to luxury products: Using EEG to understand consumers’ emotional experience with luxury branded products. Journal of Marketing Research, 52(4), 546–558, doi: 10.1509/jmr.13.0560.

Reimann, M., Castano, R., Zaichkowsky, J., & Bechara, A. (2012). How we relate to brands: Psychological and neurophysiological insights into consumer-Brand relationships. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(1), 128–142, doi: 10.1016/j.jcps.2011.11.003.

Reina, C. S., Peterson, S. J., & Waldman, D. A. (2015). Neuroscience as a basis for understanding emotions and affect in organizations. Organizational neuroscience, pp. 213–232. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited.

Riedl, R., Mohr, P. N., Kenning, P. H., Davis, F. D., & Heekeren, H. R. (2014). Trusting humans and avatars: a brain imaging study based on evolution theory. Journal of Management Information Systems, 30(4), 83–114, doi: 10.2753/MIS0742-1222300404.

Ryan, L. V. (2017). Sex differences through a neuroscience lens: Implications for business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 144(4), 771–782, doi: 10.1007/s10551-016-3110-1.

Salvador, R., & Folger, R. G. (2009). Business ethics and the brain: Rommel Salvador and Robert G. Folger. Business Ethics Quarterly, 19(1), 1–31, doi: 10.5840/beq20091911.

Schoeneborn, D., Blaschke, S., & Kaufmann, I. M. (2013). Recontextualizing anthropomorphic metaphors in organization studies: the pathology of organizational insomnia. Journal of Management Inquiry, 22(4), 435–450, doi: 10.1177/1056492612448463.

Senior, C., Lee, N., & Butler, M. (2011). PERSPECTIVE – organizational cognitive neuroscience. Organization Science, 22(3), 804–815, doi: 10.1287/orsc.1100.0532.

Spence, C. (2019). Neuroscience-inspired design: from academic neuromarketing to commercially relevant research. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 275–298, doi: 10.1177/1094428116672003.

Stanton, S. J., Sinnott-Armstrong, W., & Huettel, S. A. (2017). Neuromarketing: ethical implications of its use and potential misuse. Journal of Business Ethics, 144(4), 799–811, doi: 10.1007/s10551-016-3059-0.

Telpaz, A., Webb, R., & Levy, D. J. (2015). Using EEG to predict consumers’ future choices. Journal of Marketing Research, 52(4), 511–529, doi: 10.1509/jmr.13.0564.

Tivadar, R. I., & Murray, M. M. (2019). A primer on electroencephalography and event-related potentials for organizational neuroscience. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 69–94, doi: 10.1177/1094428118804657.

Van Vugt, M., & von Rueden, C. R. (2020). From genes to minds to cultures: Evolutionary approaches to leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 31(2), 101404, doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2020.101404.

Velicer, W. F., Eaton, C. A., & Fava, J. L. (2000). Construct explication through factor or component analysis: a review and evaluation of alternative procedures for determining the number of factors or components. Problems and Solutions in Human Assessment, 41–71, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-4397-8_3.

Venkatraman, V., Clithero, J. A., Fitzsimons, G. J., & Huettel, S. A. (2012). New scanner data for Brand marketers: How neuroscience can help better understand difference in Brand preferences. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(1), 143–153, doi: 10.1016/j.jcps.2011.11.008.

Vogel, R., & Güttel, W. H. (2013). The dynamic capability view in strategic management: a bibliometric review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(4), 426–446, doi: 10.1111/ijmr.12000.

Vom Brocke, J., & Liang, T. P. (2014). Guidelines for neuroscience studies in information systems research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 30(4), 211–234, doi: 10.2753/MIS0742-1222300408.

Waegeman, A., Declerck, C. H., Boone, C., Seurinck, R., & Parizel, P. M. (2014). Individual differences in behavioral flexibility in a probabilistic reversal learning task: an fMRI study. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 7(4), 203, doi: 10.1037/npe0000026.

Waldman, D. A., Balthazard, P. A., & Peterson, S. J. (2011a). Leadership and neuroscience: Can we revolutionize the way that inspirational leaders are identified and developed? Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(1), 60–74, doi: 10.5465/amp.25.1.60.

Waldman, D. A., Balthazard, P. A., & Peterson, S. (2011b). Social cognitive neuroscience and leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1092–1106, doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.09.005.

Waldman, D. A., Wang, D., & Fenters, V. (2019). The added value of neuroscience methods in organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 22(1), 223–249, doi: 10.1177/1094428116642013.

Waldman, D. A., Wang, D., Hannah, S. T., & Balthazard, P. A. (2017). A neurological and ideological perspective of ethical leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 60(4), 1285–1306, doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0644.

Wong, S. W., Xue, G., & Bechara, A. (2011). Integrating fMRI with psychophysiological measurements in the study of decision making. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 4(2), 85, doi: 10.1037/a0023525.

Zellars, K. L., Perrewé, P. L., Rossi, A. M., Tepper, B. J., & Ferris, G. R. (2008). Moderating effects of political skill, perceived control, and job‐related self‐efficacy on the relationship between negative affectivity and physiological strain. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 29(5), 549-571.

Zupic, I., & Čater, T. (2015). Bibliometric methods in management and organization. Organizational Research Methods, 18(3), 429–472, doi: 10.1177/1094428114562629.

Zuschke, N. (2020). An analysis of process-tracing research on consumer decision-making. Journal of Business Research, 111, 305–320, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.01.028.






Research Paper