Relational norms and satisfaction with interorganizational cooperation
Keywords:Opportunism, Relational norms, Interorganizational cooperation, Satisfaction. Interorganizational costs
This study aims to analyze the effects of interorganizational cost management and opportunism on the reflexes of relational norms on satisfaction with interorganizational cooperation in franchised companies. The collective synergy arising from these relationships mainly seeks to increase competitiveness and commercial development. Windolph and Moeller observed that interorganizational cost management increases satisfaction in the relationship with partners, while relational norms attenuate the negative effect on supplier satisfaction.Design/methodology/approach
A survey was carried out with managers of franchised companies in the food industry. The managers were identified on the social network Linkedin. After that, an invitation was sent to participate in the research. A total of 88 valid responses were obtained. The questionnaire consists of 40 extracted assertions. A pre-test was carried out to verify the comprehensibility of the wording of the assertions. Structural equation modeling with partial least squares (PLS-SEM) was used for data analysis. For analysis, validation and adequacy tests of the model were carried out, and executed in the software SmartPLS.Findings
Survey results reveal that interorganizational cost management increases franchisor relationship satisfaction. Relational social norms mitigate the negative effect of opportunism on satisfaction with cooperation. And interorganizational cost management plays an important role in the relationship between relational norms and satisfaction with cooperation between franchisor and franchisees.Research limitations/implications
However, limitations resulting from the methodological design of the research must be considered in the interpretation of the results, at the same time that they provide opportunities for new research. As for the methodological aspects, the study cannot be generalized to other branches of companies, because it is a sector with franchises with specific characteristics. It should also be considered that the study was limited to investigating the proposed model, but other constructs can be observed in the literature. Finally, to empirically assess the constructs of the theoretical model, research instruments from studies other than those considered here can be used.Practical implications
This study contributes with relevant literature and the management practice of interorganizational cooperation by empirically demonstrating the importance of interorganizational cost management as a management control mechanism and to mitigate the effects of opportunism between franchisor and franchisees.Social implications
It also contributes to the inclusion of social norms in the relationship between franchisor and franchisees with a view to increasing franchisee satisfaction with their franchisor, which also aims to mitigate the impacts of opportunism in this relationship. It contributes to the social order, as they reveal ways to mitigate possible conflicts between franchisor and franchisee and generate greater transparency in the relationship.Originality/value
This study is justified by the fact that it investigates relational aspects of cooperation between franchisor and franchisees, a form of interorganizational cooperation that is growing in the market. It is also justified by highlighting the importance of interorganizational cost management as a means of mitigating the opportunistic effects between franchisor and franchisees, proving to be an important management mechanism. Research is especially important because interorganizational strategies have been spreading in corporate environments (Dekker, Ding & Groot, 2016) and the maintenance of the relationship is dependent on satisfaction with cooperation.
Abbade, E. B. (2010). Cooperação interorganizacional: fonte de aprendizagem e vantagem competitiva ou oportunismo? Revista de Administração da Unimep, 8(2), 154–179. doi: 10.15600/1679-5350/rau.v8n2p154-179.
Allred, C., Fawcett, S., Wallin, C., & Magnan, G. (2011). A dynamic collaboration capability as a source of competitive advantage. Decision Sciences, 42(1), 129–161. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5915.2010.00304.x.
Anderson, J. C., & Narus, J. A. (1990). A model of distributor firm and manufacturer firm working partnerships. Journal of Marketing, 54(1), 42–58. doi: 10.1177/002224299005400103.
Bescorovaine, R., & Beuren, I. M. (2020). Reflexos da cooperação no desempenho de franquias: mediação do compartilhamento de informações da confiança interorganizacional. Revista de Ciências da Administração, 22(57), 37–56.
Beuren, I. M., Santos, V., Bernd, D., & Pazetto, C. (2020). Reflections of information sharing and collaborative innovation in the social responsibility of cooperatives. RBGN. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 22(2), 310–330.
Brown, J. R., Dev, C. S., & Lee, D. (2000). Managing marketing channel opportunism: the efficacy of alternative governance mechanisms. Journal of Marketing, 64(2), 51–65. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.22.214.171.12495.
Cannon, J. P., Achrol, R. S., & Gundlach, G. T. (2000). Contracts, norms, and plural form governance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 180–194. doi: 10.1177/0092070300282001.
Chi, M., Huang, R., & George, J. F. (2020). Collaboration in demand-driven supply chain: Based on a perspective of governance and IT-business strategic alignment. International Journal of Information Management, 52, 102062 doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2019.102062.
Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern Methods for Business Research, 295(2), 295–336.
Chiou, J.-S., Hsieh, C.-H., & Yang, C.-H. (2004). The effect of the franchisor's communication, service assistance and competitiveness advantage in the franchisee's intention to remain in the franchise system. Journal of Small Business Management, 42(1), 19–36. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-627X.2004.00095.x.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd ed., Hillsdale (NJ: Erlbaum.
Combs, J. G., Ketchen, D. J., & Short, J. C. (2011). Franchising research: major milestones, new directions, and its future within entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(3), 413–425. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2011.00443.x.
Cooper, R., & Slagmulder, R. (1999). Supply chain development for the lean enterprise: interorganisational cost management productivity, Portland (OR): Productivity Press.
Cooper, R., & Slagmulder, R. (2004). Interorganizational cost management and relational context. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 29(1), 1–26. doi: 10.1016/S0361-3682(03)00020-5.
Cooper, R., & Yoshikawa, T. (1994). Inter-organizational cost management systems: the case of the Tokyo - Yokohama - Kamakura supplier chain. International Journal of Production Economics, 37(1), 51–62. doi: 10.1016/0925-5273(94)90007-8.
Cravens, D. W., Shipp, S. H., & Cravens, K. S. (1993). Analysis of cooperative interorganizational relationships, strategic alliance formation, and strategic alliance effectiveness. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 1(1), 55–70. doi: 10.1080/09652549300000005.
Cropper, S., Ebers, M., Huxham, C., & Ring, P. S. (2008). Introdução às relações interorganizacionais. In S. Cropper, M. Ebers, C. Huxham, & P. S. Ring, (Eds.). The oxford handbook of inter-organizational relations, pp. 03–20. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dekker, H. C. (2004). Control of inter-organizational relationships: evidence on appropriation concerns and cooperation requirements. Accounting, Organization and Society, 29(1), 27–49. doi: 10.1016/S0361-3682(02)00056-9.
Dekker, H. C., Ding, R., & Groot, T. (2016). Collaborative performance management in interfirm relationships. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 28(3), 25–48. doi: 10.2308/jmar-51492.
Dwyer, F. R., Schurr, P. H., & Oh, S. (1987). Developing buyer-seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 51(2), 11–27. doi: 10.1177/002224298705100202.
Dyer, J. H., & Nobeoka, K. (2000). Creating and managing a high‐performance knowledge‐sharing network: the Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 345–367. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(200003)21:3<345::AID-SMJ96>3.0.CO;2-N.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382–388. doi: 10.1177/002224378101800313.
Frazier, G. L. (1983). Interorganizational exchange behavior in marketing channels: a broadened perspective. Journal of Marketing, 47(4), 6–78. doi: 10.1177/002224298304700408.
Garson, G. D. (2016). Partial least squares: Regression & structural equation models (2016 edition, Asheboro: Statistical Associates Publishing.
Gauzente, C. (2003). Measuring franchisees' satisfaction: theoretical considerations and empirical testing. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 31(10), 508–517. doi: 10.1108/09590550310497030.
Granovetter, M. (2005). The impact of social structure on economic outcomes. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(1), 33–50. doi: 10.1257/0895330053147958.
Grace, D., & Weaven, S. (2011). An empirical analysis of franchisee value-in-use, investment risk and relational satisfaction. Journal of Retailing, 87(3), 366–380. doi: 10.1016/j.jretai.2010.06.001.
Gulati, R. (1995). Does familiarity breed trust? The implications of repeated ties for contractual choice in alliances. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 85–112.
Gundlach, G. T., Achrol, R. S., & Mentzer, J. T. (1995). The structure of commitment in exchange. Journal of Marketing, 59(1), 78–92. doi: 10.1177/002224299505900107.
Hair, J. F., Jr, Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM, Los Angeles (CA): Sage.
Heide, J. B., & John, G. (1992). Do norms matter in marketing relationships? Journal of Marketing, 56(2), 32–44. doi: 10.1177/002224299205600203.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135. doi: 10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8.
Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: a review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 195–204. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199902)20:2<195::AID-SMJ13>3.0.CO;2-7.
Joshi, A. W., & Arnold, S. J. (1997). The impact of buyer dependence on buyer opportunism in buyer–supplier relationships: the moderating role of relational norms. Psychology and Marketing, 14(8), 823–845. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199712)14:8<823::AID-MAR5>3.0.CO;2-G.
Kaufmann, P. J. (1987). Commercial exchange relationships and the “negotiator's dilemma. Negotiation Journal, 3(1), 73–80. doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.1987.tb00393.x.
Lu, H., Zou, J., Chen, H., & Long, R. (2020). Promotion or inhibition? Moral norms, anticipated emotion and employee's pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Cleaner Production, 258, 120858 doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120858.
Macneil, I. R. (1980). The new social contract, New Haven (CT: Yale University Press.
Moch, M., & Seashore, S. (1981). How norms affect behaviors in and of corporations. In Nystrom, P.C., & Starbuck, W.H., (Eds.), Handbook of organizational design: adapting organizations to their environments, Vol. 1, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Morrison, K. A. (1997). How franchise job satisfaction and personality affect performance, organizational commitment, franchisor relations, and intention to remain. Journal of Small Business Management, 35(3), 39–63.
Nolli, J. G., & Beuren, I. M. (2020). Objetivos e desempenho da cooperação interfirmas: efeitos das práticas de gestão da cooperação e do escopo de transação. Revista de Educação e Pesquisa em Contabilidade, 14(3), 371–390.
Palmatier, R., Dant, R., Grewal, D., & Evans, K. (2006). Factors influencing the effectiveness of relationship marketing: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 136–153. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.70.4.136.
Paswan, A. K., Hirunyawipada, T., & Iyer, P. (2017). Opportunism, governance structure, and relational norms: an interactive perspective. Journal of Business Research, 77, 131–139. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.04.012.
Paswan, A. K., Dant, R. P., & Lumpkin, J. R. (1998). An empirical investigation of the linkages among relationalism, environmental uncertainty, and bureaucratization. Journal of Business Research, 43(3), 125–140. doi: 10.1016/S0148-2963(97)00218-X.
Richter, N. F., Sinkovics, R. R., Ringle, C. M., & Schlaege, C. (2016). A critical look at the use of SEM in international business research. International Marketing Review, 33(3), 376–404. doi: 10.1108/IMR-04-2014-0148.
Ring, P. S., & Van de Ven, A. H. (1994). Developmental processes of cooperative interorganizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 19(1), 90–118. doi: 10.5465/amr.1994.9410122009.
Ruekert, R. W., & Churchill, G. A. Jr, (1984). Reliability and validity of alternative measures of channel member satisfaction. Journal of Marketing Research, 21(2), 226–233. doi: 10.1177/002224378402100212.
Scanzoni, J. (1979). The centrality of negotiations to the study of social organization. Contemporary Sociology, 8(4), 528–530. doi: 10.2307/2065133.
Seuring, S. (2002). Supply chain costing – A conceptual framework. In Seuring, S., & Goldbach, M. (Eds.), Cost management in supply chains, pp. 15–30. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag.
Silva, A., & Beuren, I.M. (2020). Efeitos dos sistemas de controle gerencial e do compartilhamento de informações no risco interorganizacional de uma rede de franquia. Advances in Scientific and Applied Accounting, 13(1), 003–022. doi: 10.14392/ASAA.2020130101.
Subramani, M.R., & Venkatraman, N. (2003). Safeguarding investments in asymmetric interorganizational relationships: theory and evidence. Academy of Management Journal, 46(1), 46–62.
Tenenhaus, M., Vinzi, V. E., Chatelin, Y. -M., & Lauro, C. (2005). PLS path modeling. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 48(1), 159–205. doi: 10.1016/j.csda.2004.03.005.
Voorhes, C. M., Brady, M. K., Calantony, R. & Ramirez, (2016). Discriminant validity testing in marketing: an analysis, causes for concern and proposed remedies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(1), 199–134. doi: 10.1007/s11747-015-0455-4.
Wathne, K. H., & Heide, J. B. (2000). Opportunism in interfirm relationships: Forms, outcomes, and solutions. Journal of Marketing, 64(4), 36–51. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.126.96.36.19970.
Wetzels, M., Odekerken-Schröder, G., & Van Oppen, C. (2009). Using PLS path modeling for assessing hierarchical construct models: guidelines and empirical illustration. MIS Quarterly, 33(1), 177–195.
Williamson, O. E. (1998). As instituições económicas do capitalismo, New York, NY: Free Press.
Windolph, M., & Moeller, K. (2012). Open-book accounting: reason for failure of inter-firm cooperation? Management Accounting Research, 23(1), 47–60. doi: 10.1016/j.mar.2011.07.001.
Yan, R., & Wang, K. Y. (2012). Franchisor–franchisee supply chain cooperation: sharing of demand forecast information in high-tech industries. Industrial Marketing Management, 41(7), 1164–1173. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2012.06.013.
Zhou, Y., Zhang, X., Zhuang, G., & Zhou, N. (2015). Relational norms and collaborative activities: roles in reducing opportunism in marketing channels. Industrial Marketing Management, 46, 147–159. doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2015.01.014.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Management Department of the School of Economics, Management and Accounting of the University of São Paulo.
The publication of article segments is allowed, subject to prior authorization and source identification.
Copyright is regulated under Licença Creative Commons Attribution