Antecedents of organizational identification: implications for employee performance


  • IQRA University
  • IQRA University



Jobsatisfaction, Workplace incivility, Employee performance, Organizational identification, Supervision support



This study aims to investigate the impact of three determinants of organizational identification (OID) on employee performance (EP) in the context of private business institutions.


A sample of 175 permanent faculty members from four top universities in Karachi, Pakistan, was interviewed using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. The data were inserted in SPSS 22 and SmartPLS v 3.2 for performing the analysis.


Results of the study showed a significant effect in perceived supervisor support on OID; OID; job satisfaction and EP; and mediating relationship. Conversely, an insignificant effect was observed in workplace incivility.

Research limitations/implications

It is highly recommended that organizations work on the areas that lead to enhancing their employees’ performance. Also, human resource should create a healthy culture that promotes initiatives, open-door policies and discourages power distance. Lastly, one of the key responsibilities of management is to strengthen their OID because employees are more likely to identify with their supervisors if they invest in the organizations they work for.

Practical implications

This study will help strengthen the relationship between supervisors and university employees. It will guide the supervisors to acknowledge and appreciate the efforts of their subordinates and develop recreational policies and employee engagement activities. In addition, it will help develop a conducive environment and enhance the quality of education in the university and the society.


Understanding the determinants of OID on EP in the educational context is very important as it enhances the quality of EP and the overall quality of education of the institution.


Download data is not yet available.


Adams, J. S., & Freedman, S. (1976). Equity theory revisited: comments and annotated bibliography. In Advances in experimental social psychology. Florida, USA: Academic Press.

Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. The Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 452–471. doi: 10.2307/259136.

Appelbaum, E. (2000). Manufacturing Advantage: Why High-Performance Work Systems Pay Off, London, UK: Cornell University Press.

Argote, L. (1999). Organizational Learning: Creating, Retaining, and Transferring Knowledge, Norwall, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39. doi: 10.5465/amr.1989.4278999.

Ashforth, B. E., Harrison, S. H., & Corley, K. G. (2008). Identification in organizations: an examination of four fundamental questions. Journal of Management, 34(3), 325–374. doi: 10.1177/0149206308316059.

Baghini, B. Z., Pourkiani, M., & Abbasi, F. B. (2014). The relationship between organizational trust and interpersonal deviant behavior of staff in Refaah bank branches in Kerman city. Management and Technology, 2(6), 32–39.

Bakotić, D. (2016). Relationship between job satisfaction and organizational performance. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 29(1), 118–130. doi: 10.1080/1331677X.2016.1163946.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173 doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.

Bradler, C., Dur, R., Neckermann, S., & Non, A. (2016). Employee recognition and performance: a field experiment. Management Science, 62(11), 3085–3099. doi: 10.1287/mnsc.2015.2291.

Campbell, J. P., McHenry, J. J., & Wise, L. L. (1990). Modeling job performance in a population of jobs. Personnel Psychology, 43(2), 313–575. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1990.tb01561.x.

Carmeli, A., Gilat, G., & Waldman, D. A. (2007). The role of perceived organizational performance in organizational identification, adjustment and job performance. Journal of Management Studies, 44(6), 972–992. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00691.x.

Chan, M. E., & McAllister, D. J. (2014). Abusive supervision through the lens of employee state paranoia. Academy of Management Review, 39(1), 44–66. doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0419.

Chen, S. Y., Wu, W. C., Chang, C. S., Lin, C. T., Kung, J. Y., Weng, H. C., & Lee, S. I. (2015). Organizational justice, trust, and identification and their effects on organizational commitment in hospital nursing staff. BMC Health Services Research, 15(1), 1–17. doi: 10.1186/s12913-015-1016-8.

Chiang, C. F., & Hsieh, T. S. (2012). The impacts of perceived organizational support and psychological empowerment on job performance: the mediating effects of organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 180–190. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.04.011.

Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: a meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk-taking and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 909–927. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.909.

Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace: incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6(1), 64–80. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.6.1.64.

DeCotiis, T. A., & Summers, T. P. (1987). A path analysis of a model of the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment. Human Relations, 40(7), 445–470. doi: 10.1177/001872678704000704.

DeConinck, J. B., & Johnson, J. T. (2009). The effects of perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and organizational justice on turnover among salespeople. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 29(4), 333–350. doi: 10.2753/PSS0885-3134290403.

Delaney, T. J. (1996). The impact of human resource management practices on perceptions of organizational performance. The Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 949–969.

De Roeck, K., & Farooq, O. (2018). Corporate social responsibility and ethical leadership: Investigating their interactive effect on employees' socially responsible behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 151(4), 923–939. doi: 10.1007/s10551-017-3656-6.

Dutton, J. E., Dukerich, J. M., & Harquail, C. V. (1994). Organizational images and member identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(2), 239–263. doi: 10.2307/2393235.

Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchinson, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500–507. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.500.

Estes, B., & Wang, J. (2008). Integrative literature review: workplace incivility: impacts on individual and organizational performance. Human Resource Development Review, 7(2), 218–240.

Fevre, R., Lewis, D., Robinson, A., & Jones, T. (2012). Trouble at Work, London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Fogarty, T. J. (1994). Public accounting experience: the influence of demographic and organizational attributes. Managerial Auditing Journal, 9(7), 12–20.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382–388. doi: 10.1177/002224378101800313.

Gull, A., Akbar, S., & Jan, Z. (2012). Role of capacity development, employee empowerment and promotion on employee retention in the banking sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2(9), 284–300.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective, 7th ed., London: Pearson Education.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Thiele, K. O. (2017). Mirror, mirror on the wall: a comparative evaluation of composite-based structural equation modeling methods. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(5), 616–632. doi: 10.1007/s11747-017-0517-x.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: indeed, a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152. doi: 10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. Long Range Planning, 46(1-2), 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2013.01.001.

Henseler, J., Hubona, G., & Ray, P. A. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: updated guidelines. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116(1), 2–20. doi: 10.1108/IMDS-09-2015-0382.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135. doi: 10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8.

Hodgins, M., MacCurtain, S., & Mannix-McNamara, P. (2014). Workplace bullying and incivility: a systematic review of interventions. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 7(1), 54–72. doi: 10.1108/IJWHM-08-2013-0030.

Hoy, W. K., Smith, P. A., & Sweetland, S. R. (2002). The development of the organizational climate index for high schools: its measure and relationship to faculty trust. The High School Journal, 86(2), 38–49. doi: 10.1353/hsj.2002.0023.

Johnston, M. W., Parasuraman, A., Futrell, C. M., & Black, B. C. (2000). A longitudinal assessment of the impact of selected organizational influences on salespeople's organizational commitment during early employment. Journal of Marketing Research, 27(3), 333–344. doi: 10.1177/002224379002700307.

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724.

Karanika-Murray, M., Duncan, N., Pontes, H. M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Organizational identification, work engagement, and job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(8), 1019–1033. doi: 10.1108/JMP-11-2013-0359.

Koopmans, L., Bernaards, C., Hildebrandt, V., Van Buuren, S., Van der Beek, A. J., & de Vet, H. C. (2012). Development of an individual work performance questionnaire. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(1), 6–28. doi: 10.1108/17410401311285273.

Kottke, J. L., & Sharafinski, C. E. (1988). Measuring perceived supervisory and organizational support. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48(4), 1075–1079. doi: 10.1177/0013164488484024.

Kramer, R. M. (1993). Cooperation and Organizational Identification, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607–610. doi: 10.1177/001316447003000308.

Kumar, P. (2015). Antecedents and consequences of female consumers' attitude and lifestyle in facial care market (Doctoral dissertation) Universiti Utara Malaysia.

Lee, E.-S., Park, T.-Y., & Koo, B. (2015). Identifying organizational identification as a basis for attitudes and behaviors: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 141(5), 1049 doi: 10.1037/bul0000012.

LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: a critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 52 –65. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.52.

Lim, S., & Cortina, L. M. (2005). Interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace: the interface and impact of general incivility and sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 483–496. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.483.

Locke, E. A. (1969). What is job satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4(4), 309–336. doi: 10.1016/0030-5073(69)90013-0.

Martinko, M. J., Harvey, P., Brees, J. R., & Mackey, J. (2013). A review of abusive supervision research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(S1), S120–S137. doi: 10.1002/job.1888.

Newman, D. A., Dana, L. J., & Hulin, C. L. (2010). Job attitudes and employee engagement: considering the attitude 'A-factor'. The Handbook of Employee Engagement: Perspectives, Issues, Research, and Practice, 43–61.

Ostroff, C. (1992). The relationship between satisfaction, attitudes, and performance: an organizational level analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(6), 963–974. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.77.6.963.

Ouchi, W. G. (1980). Markets, bureaucracies, and clans. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25(1), 129–141. doi: 10.2307/2392231.

Pallant, J. (2011). SPSS survival manual: a step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS. Crow's nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin.

Pearson, C., & Porath, C. (2009). The Cost of Bad Behavior: How Incivility Is Damaging Your Business and What to Do About It, United Kingdom: Penguin.

Piccoli, B., Callea, A., Urbini, F., Chirumbolo, A., Ingusci, E., & De Witte, H. (2017). Job insecurity and performance: the mediating role of organizational identification. Personnel Review, 46(8), 1508–1522. doi: 10.1108/PR-05-2016-0120.

Pushpakumari, M. D. (2008). The impact of job satisfaction on job performance: an empirical analysis. City Forum, 9(1), 89–105.

Pfeffer, J. (1998). Seven practices of successful organizations. California Management Review, 40(2), 96–124. doi: 10.2307/41165935.

Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698–714. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.698.

Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J. M. (2015). SmartPLS 3. SmartPLS gmbH, Boenningstedt. Journal of Service Science and Management, 10(3).

Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23(2), 224–253. doi: 10.2307/2392563.

Saleem, S., & Amin, S. (2013). The impact of organizational support for career development and supervisory support on employee performance: an empirical study from Pakistani academic sector. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(5), 194–207.

Schneider, B., Hanges, P. J., Smith, D. B., & Salvaggio, A. N. (2003). Which comes first: employee attitudes or organizational financial and market performance? The Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 836–851. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.836.

Schrodt, P. (2002). The relationship between organizational identification and organizational culture: employee perception of culture and identification in a retail sales organization. Communication Studies, 53(2), 189–202. doi: 10.1080/10510970209388584.

Shanock, L. R., & Eisenberger, R. (2006). When supervisors feel supported: relationships with subordinates' perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(3), 689–695. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.3.689.

Sparrow, P., & Cooper, C. (2014). Organizational effectiveness, people and performance: new challenges, new research agendas. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 1(1), 2–13. doi: 10.1108/JOEPP-01-2014-0004.

Spector, P.E. (1994). Using self-report questionnaires in OB research: a comment on the use of a controversial method. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 385–392.

Spector, P. E. (1997). Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes, and Consequences, USA: Sage Publications.

Van der Stede, W. A., Young, S. M., & Chen, C. X. (2005). Assessing the quality of evidence in empirical management accounting research: the case of survey studies. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 30(7-8), 655–684. doi: 10.1016/j.aos.2005.01.003.

Steers, R. M. (1975). Effects of need for achievement on the job performance-job attitude relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(6), 678–682. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.60.6.678.

Stinglhamber, F., Marique, G., Caesens, G., Desmette, D., Hansez, I., Hanin, D., & Bertrand, F. (2015). Employees' organizational identification and affective organizational commitment: an integrative approach. PloS One, 10(4), doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123955.

Sy, T., Tram, S., & O'Hara, L. A. (2006). Relation of employee and manager emotional intelligence to job satisfaction and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68(3), 461–473. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2005.10.003.

Tepper, B. J. (2000). Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), 178–190.

Tharenou, P., Saks, A. M., & Moore, C. (2007). A review and critique of research on training and organizational-level outcomes. Human Resource Management Review, 17(3), 251–273. doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2007.07.004.

Torkelson, E., Holm, K., Bäckström, M., & Schad, E. (2016). Factors contributing to the perpetration of workplace incivility: the importance of organizational aspects and experiencing incivility from others. Work & Stress, 30(2), 115–131. doi: 10.1080/02678373.2016.1175524.

Turner, J. C. (1982). Towards a Cognitive Redefinition of the Social Group, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Van Dick, R., Wagner, U., Stellmacher, J., & Christ, O. (2004). The utility of a broader conceptualization organizational identification: which aspect really matters? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(2), 171–191. doi: 10.1348/096317904774202135.

Van Knippenberg, D., & Van Schie, E. C. M. (2000). Foci and correlates of organizational identification. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(2), 137–147. doi: 10.1348/096317900166949.

Van Knippenberg, D., De Dreu, C. K., & Homan, A. C. (2004). Work group diversity and group performance: an integrative model and research agenda. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6), 1008–1022. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.6.1008.

Van Knippenberg, D., Van Dick, R., & Tavares, S. (2007). Social identity and social exchange: identification, support, and withdrawal from the job. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(3), 457–477. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00168.x.

Walumbwa, F. O., Mayer, D. M., Wang, P., Wang, H., Workman, K., & Christensen, A. L. (2011). Linking ethical leadership to employee performance: the roles of leader-member exchange, self-efficacy, and organizational identification. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115(2), 204–213. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2010.11.002.

Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: a social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 82–111.

Weiss, H. (2002). Deconstructing job satisfaction: separating evaluations, beliefs and affective experiences. Human Resource Management Review, 12(2), 173–194. doi: 10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00045-1.

Wiesenfeld, B. M., Raghuram, S., & Garud, R. (2001). Organizational identification among virtual workers: the role of need for affiliation and perceived work-based social support. Journal of Management, 27(2), 213–229.

Wu, C. H., Liu, J., Kwan, H. K., & Lee, C. (2016). Why and when workplace ostracism inhibits organizational citizenship behaviors: an organizational identification perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(3), 1–54. doi: 10.1037/apl0000063.

Zaccaro, S. J., & Dobbins, G. H. (1989). Contrasting group and organizational commitment: evidence for differences among multilevel attachments. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10(3), 267–273. doi: 10.1002/job.4030100306.

Zhang, X. M., & Zhou, J. (2014). Empowering leadership, uncertainty avoidance, trust, and employee creativity: interaction effects and a mediating mechanism. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 124(2), 150–164. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2014.02.002.

Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., Jr., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(2), 197–206. doi: 10.1086/651257.






Research Paper