Repercussões cardiovasculares em usuários de cocaína: uma revisão integrativa

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2176-7262.rmrp.2021.173234

Palavras-chave:

Doenças cardiovasculares, Cocaína, Infarto do miocárdio

Resumo

Introdução: O uso da cocaína é considerado um importante problema de saúde, sendo crescente o número de atendimentos nos serviços de emergência de pacientes que referem sintomas relacionados a alterações cardiovasculares após seu uso. Objetivo: Apresentar as repercussões cardiovasculares promovidas pela cocaína, associando o seu consumo a possíveis desfechos fatais, além de discutir as melhores maneiras de abordar o paciente na emergência. Método: Revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases de dados eletrônicas LILACS, MEDLINE, IBECS, SciELO, Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo, Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de São Paulo, Coleciona SUS, disponíveis na BVS, bem como no PubMed. Resultados: Após análise criteriosa, 44 artigos atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Foram estudos realizados na Europa (25%), Austrália (6,82%) e no continente americano (68,18%). Discussão: Abuso de cocaína é considerado um fator de risco isolado para doenças cardiovasculares, independente de outros. Por isso, pacientes jovens admitidos com dor torácica devem ser questionados sobre o consumo dessa droga. O tratamento do IAM associado ao uso de cocaína é semelhante ao realizado em paciente não usuário e, apesar da controvérsia existente sobre existir ou não contraindicação ao emprego de betabloqueador, diversos estudos indicam a utilização de drogas alfa e beta bloqueadores nesses pacientes. Conclusão: constatou-se que as principais repercussões cardiovasculares encontradas em pacientes usuários de cocaína que procuraram atendimento nas emergências hospitalares foram as emergências/urgências hipertensivas, taquicardia supraventricular, angina, infarto agudo do miocárdio, dissecção e aneurisma de aorta.

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Publicado

2021-07-02 — Atualizado em 2021-07-16

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1.
Pantaleão SRP, Lins A da SR, Nóbrega Filho MM de S. Repercussões cardiovasculares em usuários de cocaína: uma revisão integrativa. Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) [Internet]. 16 de julho de 2021 [citado 25 de setembro de 2021];54(1):e173234. Disponível em: https://www.revistas.usp.br/rmrp/article/view/173234

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