Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis


  • Marisa Furtado Mozini Cardim Faculdades Adamantinenses Integradas
  • Marluci Monteiro Guirado Superintendência de Controle de Endemias; Laboratório de Vetores
  • Margareth Regina Dibo Superintendência de Controle de Endemias
  • Francisco Chiaravalloti Neto Universidade de São Paulo; Faculdade de Saúde Pública; Departamento de Epidemiologia



OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to prevent the disease from spreading throughout the whole territory of São Paulo or to at least reducing its expansion speed.



How to Cite

Cardim, M. F. M., Guirado, M. M., Dibo, M. R., & Chiaravalloti Neto, F. (2016). Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis . Revista De Saúde Pública, 50, 48.



Original Articles