Leprosy and gender in Brazil: trends in an endemic area of the Northeast region, 2001–2014

Authors

  • Eliana Amorim de Souza Universidade Federal da Bahia. Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saúde, Campus Anísio Teixeira. Núcleo Epidemiologia e Saúde Coletiva
  • Anderson Fuentes Ferreira Universidade Federal do Ceará. Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Pública
  • Reagan Nzundu Boigny Universidade Federal do Ceará. Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Pública
  • Carlos Henrique Alencar Universidade Federal do Ceará. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Saúde Comunitária
  • Jorg Heukelbach Universidade Federal do Ceará. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Saúde Comunitária
  • Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará
  • Jaqueline Caracas Barbosa Universidade Federal do Ceará. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Saúde Comunitária
  • Alberto Novaes Ramos Junior Universidade Federal do Ceará. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Saúde Comunitária

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/S1518-8787.2018052000335

Keywords:

Leprosy, epidemiology. Gender and Health. Disease Notification. Endemic Diseases. Neglected Diseases. Time Series Studies.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To analyze, stratifield by gender, trends of the new case leprosy detection rates in the general population and in children; of grade 2 disability, and of proportion of multibacillary cases, in the state of Bahia, Brazil from 2001 to 2014. METHODS: A time series study based on leprosy data from the National Information System for Notifiable Diseases. The time trend analysis included Poisson regression models by infection points (Joinpoint) stratified by gender. RESULTS: There was a total of 40,054 new leprosy cases with a downward trend of the overall detection rate (Average Annual Percent Change [AAPC = -0.4, 95%CI -2.8–1.9] and a nonsignificant increase in children under 15 years (AAPC = 0.2, 95%CI -3.9–4.5). The proportion of grade 2 disability among new cases increased significantly (AAPC = 4.0, 95%CI 1.3–6.8), as well as the proportion of multibacillary cases (AAPC = 2.2, 95%CI 0.1–4.3). Stratification by gender showed a downward trend of detection rates in females and no significant change in males; in females, there was a more pronounced upward trend of the proportion of multibacillary and grade 2 disability cases. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosy is still highly endemic in the state of Bahia, with active transmission, late diagnosis, and a probable hidden endemic. There are different gender patterns, indicating the importance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment, specifically in males without neglecting the situation among females.

Author Biography

Jorg Heukelbach, Universidade Federal do Ceará. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Saúde Comunitária

James Cook University. College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences. Division of Tropical Health and Medicine. Australia.

Published

2018-02-26

How to Cite

Souza, E. A. de, Ferreira, A. F., Boigny, R. N., Alencar, C. H., Heukelbach, J., Martins-Melo, F. R., Barbosa, J. C., & Ramos Junior, A. N. (2018). Leprosy and gender in Brazil: trends in an endemic area of the Northeast region, 2001–2014. Revista De Saúde Pública, 52, 20. https://doi.org/10.11606/S1518-8787.2018052000335

Issue

Section

Original Articles