Prevalência, severidade e fatores associados à depressão em estudantes universitários

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1806-6976.smad.2021.167804

Palavras-chave:

Depressão, Estudantes, Universidades, Saúde mental

Resumo

Objetivo: identificar a prevalência, a severidade e os fatores associados à depressão entre estudantes universitários no Distrito Federal. Método: estudo transversal realizado com 521 estudantes universitários, com idade entre 18 e 60 anos. Os sintomas depressivos foram avaliados através da escala Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Utilizou-se estatística descritiva e o teste do qui-quadrado. Resultados: dentre os 521 indivíduos estudados, houve predomínio do sexo feminino. A prevalência de sintomas depressivos foi de 521 (96,6%) estudantes universitários, sendo 31,3% com depressão suave, 23,4%, depressão mínima,  13,1% depressão moderadamente grave, 9,6% depressão grave e 9,2% depressão moderada. A renda familiar e o semestre cursado são fatores associados para a severidade da depressão. Conclusão: a prevalência da depressão no ambiente  universitário é comum, sendo uma proporção alta e preocupante. É crucial o rastreamento da depressão, sua severidade e seus fatores associados, a fim de estimular reflexão sobre a temática e pensar em estratégias de intervenção para a prevenção e promoção da saúde mental.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

Organização Pan- Americana de Saúde/ Organização Mundial de Saúde. Com depressão no topo da lista de causas de problemas de saúde, OMS lança a campanha “Vamos conversar”. [Internet]. 2017. [Acesso 30 out 2018]. Disponível em: <https://www.paho.org/bra/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5385:com-depressao-no-topo-da-lista-de-causas-de-problemas-de-saude-oms-lanca-a-campanha-vamos-conversar&Itemid=839>.

Mao Y, Zhang N, Liu J, Zhu B, He R, Wang X. A systematic review of depression and anxiety in medical students in China. BMC Med Educ . 2019. Available from: <https://bmcmededuc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12909-019-1744-2>. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1744-2

Muniz FWMG, Maurique LS, Toniazzo MP, Rösing CK, Casarin M. Female undergraduate dental students may present higher depressive symptoms: A systematic review. Oral Dis. 2019. Available from: <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330094828_Female_undergraduate_dental_students_may_present_higher_depressive_symptoms_A_systematic_review>. doi: 10.1111 / odi.13029

Tam W, Lo K, Pacheco J. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students: overview of systematic reviews. Med Educ. 2019. Available from: < https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30474128/>. doi: 10.1111 / medu.13770

Tung YJ, Lo KKH, Ho RCM, Tam WSW. Prevalence of depression among nursing students: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nurse Educ Today. 2018. Available from: <https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29432998/>. doi: 10.1016 / j.nedt.2018.01.009

Rotenstein LS, Ramos MA , Torre M , Segal JB, Peluso MJ, Guille C et al. Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JAMA. 2016. Available from: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613659/#:~:text=In%20this%20meta%2Danalysis%2C%20the,%2C%2015.7%25%20sought%20psychiatric%20treatment.> doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.17324

Lei XY, Xiao LM, Liu YN, Li YM. Prevalence of Depression among Chinese University Students: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2016. Available from: <https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0153454#:~:text=The%20results%20of%20this%20meta,depression%20in%20university%20students%20worldwide%2C>. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153454

Samaranayake CB, Arroll B, Fernando AT. Sleep disorders, depression, anxiety and satisfaction with life among young adults: a survey of university students in Auckland, New Zealand. N Z Med J . [Internet]. 2014. [cited June 5 2020]. Available from: < https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25145302/>.

Shamsuddin K, Fadzil F, Ismail WSW, Shah AS, Omar K, Muhammad NA et al. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students. Asian J Psychiatry. 2013. Available from:< https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1876201813000592?via%3Dihub>. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2013.01.014.

Fernandes MA, Vieira FE , Silva JS, Avelino FVSD, Santos JDM. Prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms in university students from a public institution. Rev Bras Enferm. 2018. Available from: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-71672018001102169&lng=pt. >. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2017-0752

Coryell W, Winokur G. Depressive disorders. Merck Manual - Diagnosis and treatment (MSD) - Version for healthcare professionals. [Internet]. 2016. [cited May 23 2019]. Available from: <https://www.msdmanuals.com/pt-br/profissional/transtornos-psiqui%C3%A1tricos/transtornos-do-humor/transtornos-depressivos>.

Ebert DD, Buntrock C , Mortier P , Auerbach R , Weisel KK , Kessler RC et al. Prediction of major depressive disorder onset in college students. Depression and Anxiety. 2019. Available from: <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/da.22867>. doi: 10.1002/da.22867

Liu CH, Stevens C, Wong SHM, Yasui M, Chen JA. The prevalence and predictors of mental health diagnoses and suicide among U.S. college students: Implications for addressing disparities in service use. Depression Anxiety. 2018. Available from: <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/da.22830>. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22830

Leão AM, Gomes IP, Ferreira MJM, Cavalcanti LPG. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety among University Students in the Field of Health in a Large Urban Center in the Northeast of Brazil. Rev Bras Educ Med. 2018. Available from: <http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbem/v42n4/1981-5271-rbem-42-4-0055.pdf>.doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/1981-52712015v42n4rb20180092

Flesch BD, Houvèssou GM, Munhoz TN, Fassa AG. Major depressive episode among university students in Southern Brazil. Rev Saúde Pública. 2020. Available from:< https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89102020000100210>. doi: https://doi.org/10.11606/s1518-8787.2020054001540

Pasqualucci PL, Damaso LLM, Danila AH, Fatori D, Lotufo Neto F, Koch VHK. Prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in medical residents of a Brazilian academic health system. BCM Med. Educ. 2018. Available from: <https://bmcmededuc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12909-019-1621-z>. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1621-z

Barbosa JG, Filho NA. Miranda IMO, Rezende LF , Tank K, Zeuri E. Characterization of suicide idea in university students. Rev UNINCOR. Universidade Vale do Rio Verde. 2018. Available from:< http://periodicos.unincor.br/index.php/revistaunincor/article/view/3731/pdf_788>.

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5892/ruvrd.v16i1.3731.g3426

Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) Screeners. JGIM. J Gen Internal Med. 2001. Available from: <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x>. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x

Ang AL, Wahab S, Abd Rahman FN, Hazmi H, Md Yusoff R. Depressive symptoms in adolescents in Kuching, Malaysia: Prevalence and associated factors. Pediatr Int. 2019. Available from: <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ped.13778>. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/ped.13778

Andreas JB, Brunborg GS. Depressive Symptomatology among Norwegian Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Psychometric Properties and Correlates. Front Psychol., Department of Substance Use, Norwegian Institute of Public Health. [Internet]. 2017. [cited May 5 2019]. Available from: <https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00887/full>. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00887

Andrade LR, Barbosa L, Dias BRT, Melo GF, Souza E, Vasconcelos TC. Prevalence of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms among Medicine Students. Rev Bras Educ Med. 2015;39(1):135-42. Available from: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-55022015000100135>. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/1981-52712015v39n1e00042014

Ferreira FMPB, Brito IM, Santos MR. Health promotion programs in higher education: integrative literature review. Rev Bras Enferm. 2018. Avalaible from:< https://www.scielo.br/pdf/reben/v71s4/pt_0034-7167-reben-71-s4-1714.pdf>. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2016-0693

Braga ALS, Cavalcanti TVC, Cortez EA, Dutra VFD, Marinho TG, Mattos MMGR, et al. Promotion of Mental Health for University Students. Rev Pró UniverSUS. [Internet]. 2017. [cited April 25 2020]. Avalaible from:< http://editora.universidadedevassouras.edu.br/index.php/RPU/article/view/896<.

Sahão FT. University student mental health: behaviors that favor adaptation to teaching higher. Universdade Estadual de Londrina. [Internet]. 2019. [cited May 25 2020]. Avalaible from:< http://www.uel.br/pos/pgac/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Saude-mental-do-estudante-universitario-comportamentos-que-favorecem-a-adaptacao-ao-ensino-superior.pdf>.

Wondimagegnehu A, Abebe W, Abraha W, Teferra S. Depression and social support among breast cancer patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Cancer. 2019. Avalaible from:< https://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-019-6007-4>. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-6007-4

Melo AK, Siebra AJ, Moreira V. Depression in Adolescents: Review of the Literature and the Place of Phenomenological Research. Psicol Cienc Prof. 2017. Available from:< http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1414-98932017000100018>. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1982-37030001712014

Alharbi R, Alsuhaibani K, Almarshad A, Alyahia A. Depression and anxiety among high school student at Qassim Region. J Family Med Prim Care. 2019. Available from: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436297/>. doi: 10.4103 / jfmpc.jfmpc_383_18

Santos JC. Como enfrentar o adoecimento mental na universidade: conheça iniciativas de professores e alunos [Internet]. Rio Grande do Sul (RS): Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; 2019 [Acesso 8 nov 2019]. Disponível em: <https://www.ufrgs.br/humanista/2019/10/10/como-enfrentar-o-adoecimento-mental-na-universidade-conheca-iniciativas-de-professores-e-alunos/>.

Robaert DW, Schonardie EF. Education and practices for the promotion of mental health in. RC&E. 2017; 32(103):191-212. Available from: <http://dx.doi.org/10.21527/2179-1309.2017.103.191-212>. doi: https://doi.org/10.21527/2179-1309.2017.103.191-212

Morais A. PRAE desenvolve projetos voltados à saúde mental dos estudantes [Internet]. Rio Grande do Norte (RN): Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte; 2018 [Acesso 16 nov 2019]. Disponível em: <[http://portal.uern.br/blog/prae-desenvolve-projetos-voltados-a-saude-mental-dos-estudantes/>.

Victor JF, Lopes MVO, Ximenes LB. Analysis of diagram the health promotion model of Nola J. Pender. Acta Paul Enferm. 2005; 18(3):235-40. Available: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-21002005000300002&lng=en>. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-21002005000300002

Tavares LM. Common mental disorders and subjective wellbeing in medical students: a preventive intervention based on positive psychology. [Internet]. Recife (PE): Universidade Federal de Pernambuco; 2017 [cited Nov 16 2019]. Available from: <https://repositorio.ufpe.br/handle/123456789/26477>.

Abrahão L, Ribeiro V. Campanha Janeiro Branco. Janeiro Branco: por uma cultura da Saúde Mental. [Internet]. Minas Gerais. 2020. [Acesso 25 jan 2020]. Disponível em: <http://janeirobranco.com.br/projeto-janeiro-branco/>.

Pureza JR, Kuhn CHC, Castro EK, Lisboa CSM. Positive psychology in Brazil: a systematic review. Rev Bras Ter Cogn. [Internet]. 2012. [cited Jan 6 2020]. Available from: <http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1808-56872012000200006&lng=pt&nrm=iso>.

Hailemichael Y, Hanlon C, Tirfessa K, Docrat S, Alem A, Medhin G et al. Mental health problems and socioeconomic disadvantage: a controlled household study in rural Ethiopia. Int J Equity Health. [Internet]. 2019. [cited June 1 2020]. Available from: <https://pesquisa.bvsalud.org/portal/resource/pt/mdl-31366362>.

Schlax J, Jünger C, Beutel ME, Münzel T, Pfeiffer N, Wild P, et al. Income and education predict elevated depressive symptoms in the general population: results from the Gutenberg health study. BMC Public Health. [Internet]. 2019. [cited June 1 2020]. Available from: <https://pesquisa.bvsalud.org/portal/resource/pt/mdl-31014301>.

Publicado

2021-03-31

Como Citar

Santos, L. B. dos, Nascimento, K. G. do, Fernandes, A. G. O., & Raminelli-da-Silva, T. de C. (2021). Prevalência, severidade e fatores associados à depressão em estudantes universitários. SMAD Revista Eletrônica Saúde Mental Álcool E Drogas (Edição Em Português), 17(1), 92-100. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1806-6976.smad.2021.167804