Medir a discriminação


  • Devah Pager Universidade de Harvard



Discriminação racial, Medidas de discriminação, Estratégias de pesquisa


Os debates a respeito da relevância contemporânea da discriminação são obscurecidos pela ausência de técnicas rigorosas de mensuração. Como separar os efeitos gerados pela raça das várias outras fontes de desigualdade social? O artigo examina as abordagens normalmente empregadas para medir a discriminação, como estudos de percepção, levantamentos de atitudes, análises estatísticas, experimentos de laboratório e de campo. As várias abordagens são resumidas e o alcance e a limitação de cada uma delas são avaliados. Embora nenhum método de pesquisa seja isento de falhas, a análise cuidadosa dos métodos disponíveis ajuda a estabelecer a correspondência entre o problema da pesquisa e a estratégia empírica adequada.


Os dados de download ainda não estão disponíveis.


AYRES, Ian & SIEGELMAN, Peter. (1995), “Race and gender discrimination in bargaining for a new car”. The American Economic Review, 85 (3): 304-321.

BENDICK JR., Marc; JACKSON, Charles & REINOSO, Victor. (1994), “Measuring employment discrimination through controlled experiments”. Review of Black Political Economy, 23: 25-48.

BENDICK JR., Marc; BROWN, Lauren & WALL, Kennington. (1999), “No foot in the door: an experimental study of employment discrimination”. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 10: 5-23.

BERTRAND, Marianne & MULLAINATHAN, Sendhil. (2004), “Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination”. The American Economic Review, 94: 991-1013.

BOBO, Lawrence; KLUEGEL, James & SMITH, Ryan. (1997), “Laissez-faire racism: the crystallization of a ‘kindler, genter’ anti-black ideology”. In: TUCH, Steven A. & MARTIN, Jack K. (eds.), Racial attitudes in the 1990s: continuity and change. Westport, CT, Praeger.

BODENHAUSEN, Galen. (1988), “Stereotypic biases in social decision making and memory: testing process models of stereotype use”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55: 726-737.

CANCIO, A. Silvia; EVANS, T. David & MAUME, David J. (1996), “Reconsidering the declining significance of race: racial differences in early career wages”. American Sociological Review, 61 (4): 541-556, ago.

CARR, Deborah & FRIEDMAN, Michael A. (2005), “Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States”. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46: 244–259, set.

CORRIGAN, Patrick et al. (2003), “Perceptions of discrimination among persons with serious mental illness”. Psychiatric Services, 54 (8): 1105-1110.

CROSBY, Faye. (1984), “The denial of personal discrimination”. American Behavioral Scientist, 27: 371-386.

CROSS, Harry et al. (1990), Employer hiring practices: differential treatment of Hispanic and Anglo job seekers. Washington, D.C., Urban Institute Press.

FARKAS, George. (2003), “Cognitive skills and noncognitive traits and behaviors in stratification processes”. Annual Review of Sociology, 29: 541-562.

FEAGIN, Joe R. & SYKES, Melvin P. (1994), Living with racism: the black middle-class experience. Boston, MA, Beacon Press.

FERNANDEZ, Roberto & SU, Celina. (2004), “Space in the study of labor markets”. Annual Review of Sociology, 30: 545-569, ago.

FIX, Michael & STRUYK, Raymond J. (eds.). (1993), Clear and convincing evidence: measurement of discrimination in America. Washington, D.C., Urban Institute Press.

FRYER JR., Ronald G. & LEVITT, Steven D. (2004), “The causes and consequences of distinctively black names”. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, CXIX: 767-805.

GOFF, Philip Atiba. (2005), The space between us: stereotype threat for whites in interracial domains. Doctoral dissertation. Department of Psychology, Stanford University.

HAKKEN, Jon. (1979), Discrimination against Chicanos in the Dallas Rental Housing Market: an experimental extension of the Housing Market Practices Survey. Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

HECKMAN, James J. (1998), “Detecting discrimination”. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(2): 101-116.

HECKMAN, James & SIEGELMAN, Peter. (1993), “The urban institute audit studies: their methods and findings”. In: FIX, Michael & STRUYK, Raymond J. (eds.), Clear and convincing evidence: measurement of discrimination in America. Washington, D.C., Urban Institute Press, pp. 187-258.

KESSLER, Ronald C.; MICKELSON, Kristin D. & WILLIAMS, David R. (1990), “The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States”. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40 (3): 208-230.

KINDER, Donald R. & SEARS, David O. (1981), “Prejudice and politics: symbolic racism versus racial threats to the good life”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40: 414-431.

KIRSHENMAN, Joleen & NECKERMAN, Kathryn. (1991), “We’d love to hire them, but...: the meaning of race for employers”. In: JENCKS, Christopher & PETERSON, P. E. (eds.), The urban underclass. Washington, D.C., Brookings Institution, pp. 203-234.

KUTNER, Bernard; WILKINS, Carol & YARROW, Penny Rechtman. (1952), “Verbal attitudes and overt behavior involving racial prejudice”. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 47: 649-52.

LAHEY, Joanna. (2005), “Age, women, and hiring: an experimental study”. NBER, Working Paper 11435.

LAPIERRE, Richard T. (1934), “Attitudes vs. actions”. Social Forces, 13: 230-237.

MARWELL, Gerald & AMES. Ruth E. (1981), “Economists free ride, does anyone else?”. Journal of Public Economics, 15 (3):295-310.

MASSEY, Douglas & LUNDY, Garvey. (2001), “Use of black English and racial discrimination in urban housing markets: new methods and findings”. Urban Affairs Review, 36: 452-469.

MCCONAHAY, J. B. (1986), “Modern racism, ambivalence, and the modern racism scale”. In: DOVIDIO, J. F. & GAERTNER, S. L.(eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism. San Diego, CA, Academic Press.

MOSS, Philip & TILLY, Chris. (1996), “‘Soft sills’ and race: an investigation of black men’s employment problems”. Work and Occupations, 23: 256-276.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. (2004), “Measuring racial discrimination”. Panel on Methods for Assessing Discrimination. Edited by Rebecca M. Blank, Marilyn Dabady e Constance F. Citro, Committee on National Statistics, Divison of Behavior and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C., The National Academies Press.

NEUMARK, David. (1996), “Sex discrimination in restaurant hiring: an audit study”: Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111:915-941.

NEWMAN, Katherine. (1999), No Shame in my game: the working poor in the Inner city. Nova York, Random House.

PAGER, Devah & QUILLIAN, Lincoln. (2005), “Walking the talk: what employers say versus what they do”. American Sociological Review, 70 (3): 355-380.

RIACH, Peter & RICH, Judith. (1991), “Measuring discrimination by direct experimentation methods: seeking gunsmoke”. Journal of PostKeynesian Economics, 14:143-150.

RIACH, Peter & RICH, Judith. (2002), “Field experiments of discrimination in the market place”. The Economic Journal, 112: 480-518.

RIDLEY, Stanley; BAYTON, James A. & OUTTZ, Janice Hamilton. (1989), Taxi service in the District of Columbia: is it influenced by patrons’ race and destination? Washington, D.C., Washington Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights under the Law, mimeo.

SAENGER, Gerhart & GILBERT, Emily. (1950), “Custom reactions to the integration of negro sales personnel”. International Journal of Opinion and Attitude Research, 4: 57-76.

SAGAR, H. A. & SCHOFIELD, J. W. (1980), “Racial and behavioral cues in black and white children’s perceptions of ambiguously aggressive acts”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39: 590-598.

SCHUMAN, H. (1995), “Attitudes”. In: COOK, Karen; FINE, Gary & HOUSE, James (eds.), Sociological perspectives on social psychology. Boston, Allyn and Bacon.

SCHUMAN, Howard & BOBO, Lawrence. (1988), “Survey based experiments on white racial attitudes toward residential integration”. American Journal of Sociology, 94:273-299.

SCHUMAN, Howard et al. (2001), Racial attitudes in America: trends and interpretations. 1ª edição 1997. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.

SCHWARTZ, Richard & SKOLNICK, Jerome. (1962), “Two studies of legal stigma”. Social Problems, 10: 133-142.

SMITH, Tom W. (1991), “Ethnic images. General social survey technical report, 19”. Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago.

SMITH, Tom W. (2001), Intergroup relations in a diverse America: data from the 2000 general social survey. Nova York, American Jewish Committee.

SNIDERMAN, Paul M. & GROB, Douglas B. (1996), “Innovation in experimental design in attitude surveys”. Annual Review of Sociology, 22: 377-399.

TAYLOR, D. M. et al. (1990), “The personal/group discrimination discrepancy: perceiving my group, but not myself, to be a target of discrimination”. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16: 254-262.

TURNER, Margery; FIX, Michael & STRUYK, Raymond. (1991), Opportunities denied, opportunities diminished: racial discrimination in Hiring. Washington, D.C., Urban Institute Press.

TURNER, Margery & SKIDMORE, Felicity (eds.). (1999), Mortgage lending discrimination: a review of existing evidence. Washington, D.C., The Urban Institute.

WIENK, Ronald E. et al. (1979), Measuring discrimination in American housing markets: the housing market practices survey. Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

WILSON, William Julius. (1996), When work disappears: the world of the new urban poor. Nova York, Vintage Books.

YINGER, John. (1995), Closed doors, opportunities lost. Nova York, Russell Sage Foundation.






Dossiê - Sociologia da Desigualdade

Como Citar