A luta por um novo regime de trabalho: o caso norte-americano

Palavras-chave: EUA, Sindicalismo, Recessão, Greves

Resumo

O artigo estuda o movimento sindical norte-americano desde a crise econômica de 2008. Re-construímos, inicialmente, as condições estruturais, institucionais e organizacionais do trabalho antes da crise, incluindo mudanças no emprego e na força de trabalho, o conflito entre New Deal e regimes de trabalho antissindicais e a emergência de novos repertórios no movimento sindical. Discutimos, em seguida, a ofensiva política conservadora contra os sindicatos e as iniciativas do movimento no plano federal e local. Os conflitos se intensificaram durante a administração Trump, com o ressurgimento da atividade grevista e a polarização das instituições que governam o trabalho e a vida civil.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Chris Rhomberg, Fordham University

Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Fordham University in New York City. His research has centered on issues of class, race, and urban politics in American political development, and on workplace organization and labor relations in the United States. He is a former chair of the section on Labor and Labor Movements of the American Sociological Association, and he is the author of The broken table: The Detroit newspaper strike and the state of American labor (2012).

Referências

Acemoglu, Daron et al. (2016), “Import competition and the great us employment sag of the 2000s”. Journal of Labor Economics, 34 (S1): S141-S198.

Andrews, Wilson et al. (2016), “2016 delegate count and primary results”. New York Times, 5/7. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/us/elections/primary-calendar-and-results.html, consulted in 22/10/2019.

Associated Press. (2019), “Oakland teachers reach tentative deal to end week-long strike”. Ap News. Available at https://apnews.com/5b6ca60ab50346f5833a71f6817ea2fa, consulted in 11/22/2019.

Blanc, Eric. (2019), Red state revolt: The teachers’ strike wave and working class politics. London, Verso.

Blinder, Alan, & Zandi, Mark. (2010), “How the Great Recession was brought to an end”, Moody’s Analytics. Available at https://www.economy.com/mark-zandi/documents/End-of-Great-Recession.pdf, consulted in 3/11/2019.

Brennan Center for Justice. (2019), “New voting restrictions in America”. Available at https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/new-voting-restrictions-america, consulted in 9/10/2019.

Brill, Steven. (2015), America’s bitter pill: Money, politics, backroom deals, and the fight to fix our broken healthcare system. New York, Random House.

Bureau Of Labor Statistics. (2011), “Major work stoppages in 2010”. Washington, dc, us Department of Labor. Available at https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/wkstp_02082011.pdf, consulted in 9/9/2019.

Bureau Of Labor Statistics. (2019), “Work stoppages summary”. Washington, dc, us Department of Labor. Available at https://www.bls.gov/news.release/wkstp.nr0.htm, consulted in 11/9/2019.

Carnes, Nicholas, & Lupu, Noam. (2017), “It’s time to bust the myth: Most Trump voters were not working class”. Washington Post, 5/6. Available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2017/06/05/its-time-to-bust-the-myth-most-trump-voters-were-not-working-class/, consulted in 23/10/2019.

Carré, Françoise. (2015), “(In)Dependent contractor misclassification”. Economic Policy Institute. Available at https://www.epi.org/publication/independent-contractor-misclassification/, consulted in 9/8/2019.

Center On Budget And Policy Priorities. (2020), “Chart book: Tracking the post-great recession economy”. Available at https://www.cbpp.org/research/economy/chart-book-tracking-the-post-great-recession-economy, consulted in 2/14/2020.

Cooper, David. (2017), “Raising the minimum wage to $15 by 2024 would lift wages for 41 million American workers”. Economic Policy Institute. Available at https://www.epi.org/publication/15-by-2024-would-lift-wages-for-41-million/, consulted in 14/12/2019.

Corbett, Jessica. (2018), “#MeToo Movement takes on McDonald’s as workers strike against sexual harassment ‘epidemic’”. Common Dreams, 18/9. Available at https://www.commondreams.org/news/2018/09/18/metoo-movement-takes-mcdonalds-workers-strike-against-sexual-harassment-epidemic, consulted in 25/5/2019.

Davis, Gerald. (2009), Managed by the markets: How finance reshaped America. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Dickey, Megan Rose. (2019), “Gig worker bill, ab-5, passes California State Senate”. TechCrunch, 11/9. Available at https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/10/gig-worker-bill-ab-5-passes-in-california/, consulted in 20/11/2019.

Drawbaugh, Kevin, & Carey, Nick. (2014), “Thirteen billboards, one paint-shop worker helped defeat union at vw plant in Chattanooga”. Reuters, 22/2. Available at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-uaw-election-analysis/thirteen-billboards-one-paint-shop-worker-helped-defeat-union-at-vw-plant-in-chattanooga-idUSBREA1L13220140222, consulted in 21/10/2019.

Elk, Mike. (2014), “After historic uaw defeat at Tennessee Volkswagen plant, theories abound”. In These Times, 15/2. Available at http://inthesetimes.com/working/entry/16300/after_uaw_defeat_at_volkswagen_in_tennessee_theories_abound, consulted in 22/10/2019.

Farber, Henry (2015), “Job loss in the great recession and its aftermath: us Evidence from the displaced workers survey”. Available at http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/dsp01zk51vk05h, consulted in 6/8/2019.

Feigenbaum, James et al. (2019), “From the bargaining table to the ballot box: Political effects of right to work laws”. Nber Working Paper, 24259. Available at https://www.nber.org/papers/w24259, consulted in 22/9/2019.

Fernández Campbell, Alexia. (2019), “A record number of us workers went on strike in 2018”, Vox, 13/2. Available at https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/2/13/18223211/worker-teacher-strikes-2018-record, consulted in 24/10/2019.

Fine, Janice. (2017), “Enforcing labor standards in partnership with civil society: Can co-enforcement succeed where the state alone has failed?”. Politics & Society, 45 (3): 359-388.

Fine, Janice et al. (eds.). (2018), No one size fits all: worker organization, policy, and movement for a new economic age. Champaign, il, Labor and Employment Relations Association.

Fischer, Brendan. (2012), “Alec Exposed in Wisconsin: The hijacking of a state”. Center for Media and Democracy. Available at https://www.alecexposed.org/w/images/c/cd/ALEC_Exposed_in_Wisconsin.pdf, consulted in 10/11/2019

Freund, Sarah. (2018), “More contracts ratified, Chicago hotel workers’ strike down to two hotels”. Curbed, 5/10. Available at https://chicago.curbed.com/2018/10/5/17942832/downtown-chicago-hotel-strike-two-remain, consulted in 11/27/2019.

Frey, William. (2017), “Census shows pervasive decline in 2016 minority voter turnout”. Brookings Institution, 18/5. Available at https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2017/05/18/census-shows-pervasive-decline-in-2016-minority-voter-turnout/, consulted in 8/11/2019.

Garcia, Sandra. (2019), “Stop & Shop strike ends with union claiming victory on pay and health care”. New York Times, April 22. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/22/us/stop-shop-strike.html, consulted in 4/24/2019.

Gautney, Heather. (2018), Crashing the party: From the Bernie Sanders campaign to a progressive movement. London, Verso.

Getman, Julius (2010), Restoring the power of unions: It takes a movement. New Haven, ct, Yale University Press.

Gleeson, Shannon. (2016), Precarious claims: The promise and failure of workplace protections in the United States. Oakland, University of California Press.

Gleeson, Shannon. (2019), “From co-optation to radical resistance: An examination of organized labor’s response(s) to immigrant rights in the Era of Trump.” In: Kerrissey, Jasmine, et al. (eds.). Labor in the Time of Trump. Ithaca, ny, Cornell University Press, pp. 149-168.

Gordon, Colin (2016), “Right to Work (For Less): By the Numbers”. Dissent. Available at https://www.dissentmagazine.org/blog/right-to-work-impact-wages-union-density-economic-analysis, consulted in 16/9/2019.

Gould, Elise. (2018), “The state of American wages 2017”. Economic Policy Institute. Available at https://www.epi.org/publication/the-state-of-american-wages-2017/, consulted in 1/10/2019.

Greenhouse, Steven. (2019), “We’re organizing to improve lives’: New York fast-food workers push to unionize”. The Guardian, 30/9. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/sep/30/new-york-chipotle-mcdonalds-union-fight-for-15, consulted in 01/10/2019.

Haines Whack, Errin. (2017), “Black lives matter joining forces with minimum wage activists for nationwide protests”. Chicago Tribune, 24/3. Available at https://trib.in/2JKo6Lg, consulted in 13/6/2017.

Hall, Peter, & Soskice, David. (2001), Varieties of capitalism: The institutional foundations of comparative advantage. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Hebdon, Robert et al. (2013), “Public sector collective bargaining: Tumultuous times”. In: Stanger, Howard et al. (eds.). Collective bargaining under duress: Case studies of major us Industries. Champaign, il, Labor and Employment Relations Association, pp. 251-292.

Hirsch, Barry & MacPherson, David. (2019), “Union membership, coverage, density and employment, 1973-2018”. Available at http://www.unionstats.com/, consulted in 9/9/2019.

Kalleberg, Arne. (2011), Good jobs, bad jobs: The rise of polarized and precarious employment systems in the United States, 1970s to 2000s. New York, Russell Sage Foundation.

Kuttner, Robert, et al. (2019), “The future of real jobs”. The American Prospect, 14/5. Available at https://prospect.org/economy/future-real-jobs-prospect-roundtable/, consulted in 11/12/2019.

Lafer, Gordon. (2017), The one percent solution: How corporations are remaking American one state at a time. Ithaca, ny, Cornell University Press.

LaReau, Jamie. (2019), “Strike over! uaw workers ratify contract with gm”. Detroit Free Press, 25/10. Available at https://www.freep.com/story/money/cars/general-motors/2019/10/25/gm-uaw-strike-contract-ratification-update/4057059002/, consulted in 11/8/2019.

Lazare, Sarah. (2019), “Chicago teachers are carrying the torch of decades of militant worker struggles”. In These Times, 29/10. Available at http://inthesetimes.com/working/entry/22141/chicago-teachers-union-seiu-social-justice-unionism, consulted in 11/7/2019.

Lewis, Cora & Barem, Manuela. (2016), “McDonald’s is Under Criminal Investigation in Brazil”. BuzzFeed News, 3/4. Available at https://www.buzzfeed.com/coralewis/mcdonalds-is-under-criminal-investigation-in-brazil?utm_term=.hqEYknO9e#.duLoAePQZ, consulted in 12/6/2017.

Logan, John. (2006), “The union avoidance industry in the United States”. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 44 (4): 651-675.

Loprest, Pamela et al. (2009), “Who are low-wage workers?”. Washington, dc, us Department of Health and Human Services. Available at http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/09/LowWageWorkers/rb.shtml, consulted in 8/1/2019.

Marr, Chris. (2019), “States with $15 minimum wage laws doubled this year”. Bloomberg Law, 23/5. Available at https://news.bloomberglaw.com/daily-labor-report/states-with-15-minimum-wage-laws-doubled-this-year, consulted in 24/5/2019

Matthews, Dylan. (2019), “The big new plan to save unions endorsed by Bernie Sanders and Pete Buttigieg, explained”. Vox, 22/8. Available at https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/8/22/20826642/mary-kay-henry-seiu-sectoral-bargaining, consulted in 6/11/2019.

Mcnicholas, Celine, et al. (2019), “Unprecedented: The Trump nlrb’s attack on workers’ rights”. Economic Policy Institute. Available at https://www.epi.org/publication/unprecedented-the-trump-nlrbs-attack-on-workers-rights/.

Mellnik, Ted, et al. (2017), “That big wave of less-educated white voters? It never happened”. Washington Post, 10/5. Available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/politics/census-election-turnout/?utm_term=.55699cf01db1, consulted in 8/11/2019.

Mettler, Suzanne. (2018), The government-citizen disconnect. New York, Russell Sage Foundation.

Milkman, Ruth. (2019), “The world we have Lost: us labor in the Obama Years”. Rich, W. C. (ed.). Looking back on President Barack Obama’s legacy: Hope and change. East Bridgewater, nj, Palgrave Macmillan (Springer Nature).

Milkman, Ruth & Ott, Ed (eds.). (2014), New labor in New York: Precarious workers and the future of the labor movement. Ithaca, ny, Cornell University Press.

National Employment Law Project. (2017a), “Fighting preemption: The Movement for higher wages must oppose state efforts to block local minimum wage laws”. Available at https://www.nelp.org/publication/fighting-preemption-local-minimum-wage-laws/, consulted in 9/7/2017.

National Employment Law Project. (2017b), “Putting workers first? The year in review”. Available at https://www.nelp.org/publication/putting-workers-first-2017-in-review/, consulted in 21/11/2019.

National Partnership For Women And Families. (2019), “Current paid sick days laws”. Available at http://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/economic-justice/paid-sick-days.html, consulted in 20/11/2019.

Passel, Jeffrey & Cohn, D’Vera. (2019), “Mexicans decline to less than half the us unauthorized immigrant population for the first time”. Pew Research Center. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/06/12/us-unauthorized-immigrant-population-2017/, consulted in 1/8/2019.

Philp, Drew. (2018), “‘One job should be enough’: Marriott hotel workers’ strike hits eight us cities”. The Guardian, 26/10. Available at https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/oct/26/marriott-hotel-workers-strike-hits-eight-us-cities, consulted in 11/7/2019.

Platzer, Michaela & Harrison, Glennon. (2009), The us automotive industry: National and state trends in manufacturing employment. Washington, dc, Congressional Research Service. https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/key_workplace/666/, consulted in 27/7/2019.

Poo, Ai-jen. (2019), “They look after your children: They deserve basic rights”. New York Times, 14/7. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/14/opinion/harris-jayapal-domestic-workers.html, consulted in 24/10/2019.

Quadagno, Jill. (1996), The color of welfare: How racism undermined the war on poverty. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Radford, Jynnah. (2019), “Key findings about us immigrants”. Pew Research Center. 6/17. Available at https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/06/17/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants/, consulted in 27/7/2019

Rainey, Rebecca, & Kullgren, Ian. (2019), “1 year after Janus, unions are flush”. Politico 17/5. Available at https://www.politico.com/story/2019/05/17/janus-unions-employment-1447266, consulted in 10/11/2019.

Reich, Adam & Bearman, Peter. (2018), Working for respect: Community and conflict at Walmart. New York, ny, Columbia University Press.

Rhomberg, Chris. (2012), The broken table: The Detroit newspaper strike and the state of American labor. New York, Russell Sage Foundation.

Rhomberg, Chris. (2018), “$15 and a Union”: Searching for Workers’ power in the fight for $15 movement”. In: Fine, Janice et al. (eds.). No one size fits all: worker organization, policy, and movement for a new economic age. Champaign, il, Labor and Employment Relations Association, pp. 251-270.

Rolf, David. (2016), The fight for $15: The right wage for a working America. New York, The New Press.

Rosenblum, Jonathan. (2017), Beyond $15: Immigrant workers, faith activists, and the revival of the labor movement. Boston, Beacon Press.

Selyukh, Alina. (2019), “McDonald’s not responsible for how franchisees treat workers, us agency rules”. National Public Radio News, 12 (12). Available at https://www.npr.org/2019/12/12/787126119/mcdonalds-not-responsible-for-how-franchisees-treat-workers-u-s-agency-rules, consulted in 19/12/2019.

Sniderman, Marilyn, & McCartin, Joseph. (2018), “Bargaining for the Common Good: An Emerging Tool for Rebuilding Worker Power.” In: Fine, Janice et al. (eds.). No one size fits all: Worker organization, policy, and movement for a new economic age. Champaign, il, Labor and Employment Relations Association, pp. 219-233.

Villareal, M. Angeles. (2019), “Us-Mexico economic relations: trends, issues, and implications”. Congressional Research Service, Report n. RL32934, 26/3/2019. Available at https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL32934/46, consulted in 31/7/2019.

Weaver, Jeff. (2018), How Bernie won. New York, St. Martin’s Press.

Weil, David. (2014), The fissured workplace: Why work became so bad for so many and what can be done to improve it. Cambridge, ma, Harvard University Press.

Weisbrot, Mark et al. (2014), “Did Nafta help Mexico? An assessment after 20 years”. Center for Economic and Policy Research. Available at http://cepr.net/documents/nafta-20-years-2014-02.pdf, consulted in 1/9/2019.

Western, Bruce & Rosenfeld, Jake. (2011), “Unions, norms, and the rise in us wage inequality”. American Sociological Review, 76: 513-537.

Wykstra, Stephanie. (2019), “The movement to make workers’ schedules more humane”. Vox, 5/11. Available at https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/2019/10/15/20910297/fair-workweek-laws-unpredictable-scheduling-retail-restaurants, consulted in 20/11/2019.

Young, Kevin et al. (2018), “Capital strikes as a corporate political strategy: The structural power of business in the Obama Era”. Politics & Society, 46 (1): 3-28.

Publicado
2020-04-15
Como Citar
Rhomberg, C. (2020). A luta por um novo regime de trabalho: o caso norte-americano. Tempo Social, 32(1), 99-118. https://doi.org/10.11606/0103-2070.ts.2020.164863
Seção
Dossiê - Sindicalismo e neoliberalismo