Legitimidade, confiança e cinismo jurídico: uma revisão de conceitos
Palavras-chave:Legitimidade da lei, Legitimação, Dever de obediência, Confiabilidade, Cinismo jurídico
Revisamos os conceitos de legitimidade, confiança e cinismo jurídico no contexto do debate sobre a legitimidade policial, discutimos até que ponto esses conceitos se relacionam e oferecemos algumas reflexões especulativas sobre como o modelo relacional de legitimidade pode ir além de questões de justiça processual. Com base na teoria da justiça processual, enfatizamos a distinção entre legitimidade policial e legitimação: legitimidade popular é definida como crenças públicas de que a autoridade legal tem o direito de governar (as pessoas reconhecem a adequação moral da autoridade legal) e a autoridade de governar (as pessoas reconhecem a autoridade legal como autoridade legítima), enquanto a legitimação está relacionada aos critérios que as pessoas usam para julgar a adequação normativa do exercício do poder dos agentes legais (por exemplo, até que ponto os policiais são confiáveis para se comportar de acordo com as expectativas normativas das pessoas). Baseando-nos em estudos sobre cinismo jurídico e socialização jurídica, consideramos como outros aspectos da conduta policial podem enviar mensagens negativas sobre o valor das pessoas na sociedade e minar seus julgamentos sobre a legitimidade da autoridade legal – mensagens de opressão, marginalização e negligência pela vida. Concluímos sugerindo caminhos para pesquisas futuras sobre relações público-polícia.
Applbaum, Arthur Isak. (2019), Legitimacy: The right to rule in a wanton world. Cambridge, ma, Harvard University Press.
Augustyn, Megan Bears. (2016), “Updating perceptions of (in)justice”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52 (2): 255-286.
Anderson, Elijah. (1999), Code of the street: decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York, ny, W. W. Norton.
Bell, Monica. (2016), “Situational trust: how disadvantaged mothers reconceive of legal cynicism”. Law & Society Review, 50 (2): 314-347.
Bell, Monica. (2017), “Police reform and the dismantling of legal estrangement”. The Yale Law Journal, 2014-2150.
Bolger, P. Colin & Walters, Glenn D. (2019), “The relationship between police procedural justice, police legitimacy, and people’s willingness to cooperate with law enforcement: a meta-analysis”. Journal of Criminal Justice, 60: 93-99.
Bottoms, Anthony & Tankebe, Justice. (2012), “Beyond procedural justice: a dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice”. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102 (1): 119-170.
Bradford, Ben. (2017), Stop and search and police legitimacy. London, uk, Routledge.
Bradford, Ben; Huq, Azis; Jackson, Jonathan & Roberts, Benjamin. (2014), “What price fairness when security is at stake? Police legitimacy in South Africa”. Regulation and Governance, 8: 246-267.
Bradford, Ben; Milani, Jenna & Jackson, Jonathan. (2017), “Identity, legitimacy and ‘making sense’ of police use of force”. Policing: An International Journal, 40 (3): 614-627.
Brinkmann, Matthias. (2020), “Legitimacy: the right to rule in a wanton world. By Arthur Isak Applbaum”. Perspectives on Politics, 18 (4): 1203-1204.
Brunson, Rod & Gau, Jacinta. (2015), “Officer race versus macro-level context: a test of competing hypotheses about black citizens’ experiences with and perceptions of black police officers”. Crime & Delinquency, 61 (2): 213-242.
Carr, Patrick; Napolitano, Laura & Keating, Jessica. (2007), “We never call the cops and here is why: a qualitative examination of legal cynicism in three Philadelphia neighborhoods”. Criminology, 45 (2): 445-480.
Ceva, Emanuela. (2016), Interactive justice: a proceduralist approach to value conflict in politics. New York, Routledge.
Cohn, Ellen & White, S. (1990), “Comparing theories of legal socialization”. In: Legal socialization: A study of norms and rules. New York, Springer.
Cooper, Shauna et al. (2020). “‘That is why we raise children’: African American fathers’ race-related concerns for their adolescents and parenting strategies”. Journal of Adolescence, 82: 67-81.
Desmond, Mathew; Papachristos, Andrew V. & Kirk, David S. (2016), “Police violence and citizen crime reporting in the black community”. American Sociological Review, 81 (5): 857-876.
Eisner, Manuel, et al. (2011), “Large-scale criminological field experiments: the Zurich Project on the social development of children”. In: Gadd, David; Karstedt, Susanne & Messner, Steven F. (eds.). The Sage handbook of criminological research methods. London, Sage Publications, pp. 410-424.
Elliot, Sinikka & Reid, Mega. (2019), “Low-income black mothers parenting adolescents in the mass incarceration era: the long reach of criminalization”. American Sociological Review, 84 (2): 197-219.
Epp, Charles, et al. (2014), Pulled over: how police stops define race and citizenship. Chicago, IL, The University of Chicago Press.
Fagan, Jeffrey & Tyler, Tom. (2005), “Legal socialization of children and adolescents”. Social Justice Research, 18 (3): 217-241.
Fine, Adam & Cauffman, Elizabeth. (2015), “Race and justice system attitude formation during the transition to adulthood”. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 1 (4): 325-349.
Fine, Adam et al. (2016), “The role of peer arrests on the development of youth’s attitudes towards the justice system”. Law and Human Behavior, 40 (2): 211-218.
Fine, Adam et al. (2017), “Is the effect of justice system attitudes on recidivism stable after youth’s first arrest? Race and legal socialization among first-time youth offenders”. Law and Human Behavior, 41 (2): 146-158.
Fratello, Jennifer et al. (2013), “Coming of age with stop and frisk: experiences, self-perceptions, and public safety implications”. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.
Gau, Jacinta. (2015), “Procedural justice, police legitimacy, and legal cynicism: a test for mediation effects”. Police Practice and Research, 16 (5): 402-415.
Geller, Amanda & Fagan, Jeffrey. (2019), “Police contact and the legal socialization of urban teens”. Rsf: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 5 (1): 26-49.
Gerber, Monica & Jackson, Jonathan. (2017), “Justifying violence: legitimacy, ideology and public support for police use of force”. Psychology, Crime & Law, 23 (1): 79-95.
Gerber, Monica et al. (2018), “On the justification of intergroup violence: The roles of procedural justice, police legitimacy, and group identity in attitudes toward violence among indigenous people”. Psychology of Violence, 8 (3): 379-400.
Gifford, Faith & Reisig, Michael. (2019), “A multidimensional model of legal cynicism”. Law and Human Behavior, 43 (4): 383-396.
Goffman, Erving. (1974), Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience. Cambridge, ma, Harvard University Press.
Hagan, John; Kaiser, Joshua & Hanson, Anna. (2016), “The theory of legal cynicism and Sunni insurgent violence in post-invasion Iraq”. American Sociological Review, 81 (2): 316-346.
Hagan, John et al. (2018), “Dual-process theory of racial isolation, legal cynicism, and reported crime”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115 (28): 7190-7199.
Hagan, John et al. (2020), “What the study of legal cynicism and crime can tell us about reliability, validity, and versatility in law and social science research”. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 16: 1-20.
Haldipur, Jan. (2019), No place on the corner: the costs of aggressive policing. New York, ny, nyu Press.
Hamm, Joseph; Trinkner, Rick & Carr, James. (2017), “Fair process, trust, and cooperation: moving toward an integrated framework of police legitimacy”. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 44 (9): 1183-1212.
Harding, David. (2009), “Violence, older peers, and the socialization of adolescent boys in disadvantaged neighborhoods.” American Sociological Review, 74 (3): 445-464.
Hinsch, Wilfried. (2008), “Legitimacy and justice: a conceptual and functional clarification”. In: Kühnelt, J. (org.). Political legitimzation without morality?. Springer.
Hinsch, Wilfried. (2010), “Justice, legitimacy, and constitutional rights”. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 13 (1): 39-54.
Hough, Mike; Jackson, Jonathan & Bradford, Ben. (2013), “Legitimacy, trust and compliance: an empirical test of procedural justice theory using the European Social Survey”. In: Tankebe, Justice & Liebling, A. Legitimacy and criminal justice: An international exploration. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Huq, Aziz; Jackson, Jonathan & Trinkner, Rick. (2017), “Legitimating practices: revisiting the predicates of police legitimacy”. The British Journal of Criminology, 54: 1101-1122.
Jackson, Jonathan. (2018), “Norms, normativity, and the legitimacy of justice institutions: international perspectives”. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 14 (1): 145-165.
Jackson, Jonathan & Bradford, Ben. (2019), “Blurring the distinction between empirical and normative legitimacy? A methodological commentary on ‘Police legitimacy and citizen cooperation in China’”. Asian Journal of Criminology, 14 (4): 265-289.
Jackson, Jonathan & Gau, Jacinta. (2015), “Carving up concepts? Differentiating between trust and legitimacy in public attitudes towards legal authority”. In: Shockley E.; Neal T.; Pytlikzillig L. & Bornstein B. Interdisciplinary perspectives on trust: towards theoretical and methodological integration. New York, Springer.
Jackson, Jonathan et al. (2012), “Why do people comply with the law? Legitimacy and the influence of legal institutions”. The British Journal of Criminology, 52 (6): 1051-1071.
Jackson, Jonathan et al. (2013a), Just authority? Trust in the police in England and Wales. London, uk, Willan.
Jackson, Jonathan et al. (2013b), “Monopolizing force? Police legitimacy and public attitudes toward the acceptability of violence”. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19 (4): 479-497.
Jackson, Jonathan et al. (2014), “Corruption and police legitimacy in Lahore, Pakistan”. The British Journal of Criminology, 54 (6): 1067-1088.
Jackson, Jonathan et al. (2021a), “Developing core national indicators of public attitudes towards the police in Canada”. Policing and Society.
Jackson, Jonathan et al. (2021b), “Police legitimacy and the norm to cooperate: using a mixed effects location-scale model to estimate the strength of social norms at a small spatial scale”. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 37: 547-572.
Jackson, Jonathan et al. (forthcoming), “Fear and legitimacy in São Paulo, Brazil: police-citizen relations in a high violence, high fear city. Law & Society Review.
Kaiser, Kimberley & Reisig, Michael. (2019), “Legal socialization and self-reported criminal offending: the role of procedural justice and legal orientations”. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 35: 135-154.
Kirk, David S. (2016), “Prisoner reentry and the reproduction of legal cynicism”. Social Problems, 63 (2): 222-243.
Kirk, David S. & Papachristos, Andrew V. (2011), “Cultural mechanisms and the persistence of neighborhood violence”. American Journal of Sociology, 116 (4): 1190-1233.
Kirk, David S. & Matsuda, Mauri. (2011), “Legal cynicism, collective efficacy, and the ecology of arrest”. Criminology, 49 (2): 443-472.
Kirk, David S. & Wakefield, Sara. (2018), “Collateral consequences of punishment: a critical review and path forward”. Annual Review of Criminology 1: 171-194.
Kirk, David S. et al. (2012), “The paradox of law enforcement in immigrant communities: does tough immigration enforcement undermine public safety?”. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 641 (1): 79-98.
Komatsu, André et al. (2020), “Contacts with police officers and changes in police legitimacy perceptions among Brazilian adolescents over time”. International Annals of Criminology, 58 (2): 237-252.
Lind, Edgar & Tyler, Tom. (1998), The social psychology of procedural justice. Springer Science and Business Media.
Mackenzie, Catriona. (2020), “Procedural justice, relational equality, and self-respect”. In: Meyerson, Denise et al.
Procedural justice and relational theory: empirical, philosophical, and legal perspectives. London, Routledge.
Mayer, Roger et al. (1995), “An integrative model of organizational trust”. The Academy of Management Review, 20: 709-734.
Mazerolle, Lorraine et al. (2013), “Procedural justice and police legitimacy: A systematic review of the research evidence”. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9 (3): 245-274.
McLean, Kyle et al. (2019), “Legitimacy and the life course: An age-graded examination of changes in legitimacy attitudes over time”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 56 (1): 42-83.
McEvily, Bill & Tortoriello, Marco. (2011), “Measuring trust in organizational research: review and recommendations”. Journal of Trust Research, 1: 23-63
Meares, Tracy. (2017), “Policing and procedural justice: shaping citizens’ identities to increase democratic participation”. Northwestern University Law Review, 111 (6): 1525-1535.
Möllering, Guido. (2001). “The nature of trust: from Georg Simmel to a theory of expectation, interpretation and suspension”. Sociology, 35: 403-420.
Moule Jr., Richard et al. (2019), “The long shadow of Ferguson: legitimacy, legal cynicism, and public perceptions of police militarization”. Crime & Delinquency, 65 (2): 151-182.
Murphy, Kristina et al. (2008), “Encouraging public cooperation and support for police”. Policing and Society, 18 (2): 136-155.
Nagin, Daniel. (2013), “Deterrence: A review of the evidence by a criminologist for economists”. Annual Review of Economics, 5 (1): 83-105.
Nagin, Daniel & Telep, Cody. (2017), “Procedural justice and legal compliance”. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 13: 5-28.
Nagin, Daniel & Telep, Cody. (2020), “Procedural justice and legal compliance: A revisionist perspective”. Criminology & Public Policy, 19 (3): 761-786.
Nivette, Amy et al. (2015), “The social and developmental antecedents of legal cynicism”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52 (2): 270-298.
Nivette, Amy et al. (2019), “Evaluating the shared and unique predictors of legal cynicism and police legitimacy from adolescence into early adulthood”. Criminology, 58 (1): 70-100.
Oliveira, Thiago R. (2021), “Violence and coercive policing: dynamics and consequences of the overpolicing-underpolicing paradox in Brazil’s largest city”. Working paper. Available at https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/89jkv.
Oliveira, Thiago R. et al. (2020), “Are trustworthiness and legitimacy ‘hard to win, easy to lose’? A longitudinal test of the asymmetry thesis of police-citizen contact”. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 1-43.
Papachristos, Andrew V.; Meares, Tracy & Fagan, Jeffrey. (2012), “Why do criminals obey the law? The influence of legitimacy and social networks on active gun offenders”. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102 (2): 397-440.
Piccirillo, Debora et al. (2021), “The role of police contact and neighborhood experiences on legal socialization: Longitudinal evidence from adolescents in Brazil”. Journal of Social Issues.
Piquero, Alex et al. (2005), “Developmental trajectories of legal socialization among serious adolescent offenders”. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 96 (1): 267-298.
Prowse, Gwen; Weaver, Vesla & Meares, Tracy. (2019), “The state from below: distorted responsiveness in policed communities”. Urban Affairs Review, 56 (5): 1423-1471.
Pytlikzillig, Lisa & Kimbrough, Christopher. (2016), “Consensus on conceptualizations and definitions of trust: Are we there yet?”. In: Shockley E.; Neal T.; Pytlikzillig L. & Bornstein B. Interdisciplinary perspectives on trust: towards theoretical and methodological integration. New York, Springer.
Reiner, Robert. (2010), The politics of the police. Oxford, uk, Oxford University Press.
Reisig, Michael et al. (2011), “Legal cynicism, legitimacy, and criminal offending: The nonconfounding effect of low self-control”. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38 (12): 1265-1279.
Rios, Victor. (2011), Punished: Policing the lives of Black and Latino boys. New York, ny: nyu Press.
Rios, Victor et al. (2020), “Mano suave-mano dura: Legitimacy policing and latino stop-and-frisk”. American Sociological Review, 85 (1): 58-75.
Rousseau, Denise et al. (1998), “Introduction to special topics forum: Not so different after all: A cross-discipline view of trust”. The Academy of Management Review, 23: 393-404.
Sampson, Robert J. (2012), Great American city: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. Chicago, il, University of Chicago Press.
Sampson, Robert J. & Bartusch, Dawn J. (1998), “Legal cynicism and (subcultural) tolerance of deviance: the neighborhood context of racial difference”. Law & Society Review, 32 (4): 777-804.
Sampson, Robert J. & Wilson, Willian J. (1995), “Toward a theory of race, crime, and urban inequality”. In: Hagan, John & Peterson, Ruth D. Crime and inequality. Stanford, ca, Stanford University Press.
Scheffler, Samuel. (2003), “What is egalitarianism?”. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 31 (1): 5-39.
Schubert, Carol et al. (2016), “Differentiating serious adolescent offenders who exit the justice system from those who do not”. Criminology, 54 (1): 56-85.
Skogan, Wesley & Hartnett, Susan. (1999), Community policing, Chicago style. Oxford, uk, Oxford University Press.
Srole, Leo. (1956), “Social integration and certain corollaries: An exploratory study”. American Sociological Review, 21 (6): 709–716.
Stoudt, Brett et al. (2011), “Growing up policed in the age of aggressive policing policies”. New York Law School Law Review, 56: 1331-1371.
Stoudt, Brett et al. (2012), “Contesting privilege with critical participatory action research”. Journal of Social Issues, 68 (1): 178-193.
Sun, Ivan et al. (2018), “Police legitimacy and citizen cooperation in China: testing an alternative model”. Asian Journal of Criminology, 13: 275-291.
Sunshine, Jason & Tyler, Tom. (2003), “The role of procedural justice and legitimacy in public support for policing”. Law and Society Review, 37 (3): 513-548.
Tankebe, Justice. (2009), “Public cooperation with the police in Ghana: Does procedural fairness matter?”. Criminology, 47 (4): 1265-1293.
Tap, June Louin & Levine, Felice J. (1974), “Legal socialization: strategies for an ethical legality”. Stanford Law Review, 27 (1).
Taylor, Terrance J. et al. (2009), “Racial bias in case processing: does victim race affect police clearance of violent crime incidents?”. Justice Quarterly, 26 (3): 562-59.
Terrill, William, & Reisig, Michael. (2003) “Neighborhood context and police use of force”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40 (3): 291-321.
Trinkner, Rick. (2019), “Clarifying the contours of the police legitimacy measurement debate: a response to Cao and Graham”. Asian Journal of Criminology, 14 (4): 309-335.
Trinkner, Rick & Cohn, Ellen. (2014) “Putting the “social” back in legal socialization: procedural justice, legitimacy, and cynicism in legal and nonlegal authorities”. Law and Human Behavior, 38 (6): 602-617.
Trinkner, Rick & Tyler, Tom R. (2016), “Legal socialization: coercion versus consent in an era of mistrust”. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 12: 417-439.
Trinkner, Rick; Jackson, Jonathan & Tyler, Tom. (2018), “Bounded authority: Expanding ‘appropriate’ police behavior beyond procedural justice”. Law and Human Behavior, 42 (3): 280-293.
Trinkner, Rick et al. (2019), “Legal socialisation in Brazil: examining the generalisability of the procedural justice model”. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 44 (1): 7-27.
Tyler, Tom R. (2004), “Enhancing police legitimacy”. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 593 (1): 84-99.
Tyler, Tom R. (2006a), Why people obey the law. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
Tyler, Tom R. (2006b), “Psychological perspectives on legitimacy and legitimation”. Annual Review of Psychology, 57: 375-400.
Tyler, Tom R. & Blader, Steven. (2000), Cooperation in groups: Procedural justice, social identity, and behavioral engagement. Philadelphia, Psychology Press.
Tyler, Tom R. & Blader, Steven. (2003), “The group engagement model: procedural justice, social identity, and cooperative behavior”. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7 (4): 349-361.
Tyler, Tom R. & Fagan, Jeffrey. (2008), “Legitimacy and cooperation: why do people help the police fight crime in their communities?”. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 6 (1): 231-275.
Tyler, Tom R. & Huo, Yuen. (2002), Trust in the law: Encouraging Public cooperation with the police and the courts. New York, Russell Sage Foundation.
Tyler, Tom R. & Jackson, Jonathan. (2013), “Future challenges in the study of legitimacy and criminal justice”. In: Tankebe, Justice & Liebling, Alison (orgs.). Legitimacy and criminal justice: an international exploration. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 83-104.
Tyler, Tom R. & Jackson, Jonathan. (2014), “Popular legitimacy and the exercise of legal authority: motivating compliance, cooperation, and engagement”. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 20 (1): 78-95.
Tyler, Tom R. & Lind, E. Allan. (1992), “A relational model of authority in groups”. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25: 115-191.
Tyler, Tom R. & Trinkner, Rick. (2017), Why children follow rules: legal socialization and the development of legitimacy. New York, Oxford University Press.
Tyler, Tom R.; Fagan, Jeffrey & Geller, Amanda. (2014), “Street stops and police legitimacy: teachable moments in young urban men’s legal socialization”. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 11 (4): 751-785.
Tyler, Tom R.; Jackson, Jonathan & Mentovich, Avital. (2015), “The consequences of being an object of suspicion: potential pitfalls of proactive police contact”. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 12 (4): 602-636.
Von Platz, Jeppe. (2020), Theories of distributive justice: who gets what and why. London, uk, Routledge.
Waddington, P. A. J. (1999), Policing citizens: authority and rights. Philadelphia, Psychology Press.
Walters, Glenn & Bolger, Collin. (2019), “Procedural justice perceptions, legitimacy beliefs, and compliance with the law: a meta-analysis”. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 15 (3): 341-372.
Weaver, Vesla. (2018), “More security may actually make us feel less secure”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115 (39): 9649-9651.
Copyright (c) 2021 Thiago Oliveira, Jonathan Jackson
Este trabalho está licenciado sob uma licença Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.