Vírus em viagem: fluxos turísticos globais e propagação pandémica da Covid-19

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/0103-2070.ts.2022.192389

Palavras-chave:

Fluxos turísticos, Transporte aéreo, Globalização viral, Covid-19

Resumo

Na relação com a Covid-19, o turismo é referenciado sobretudo como uma esfera socioeconômica severamente afetada, não sendo dado o devido relevo ao seu papel  enquanto componente do sistema de condições que desencadeou a pandemia. Perante esta situação, a análise desenvolvida é orientada pelo intuito de perceber como os processos de massificação turística e a abrangente rede de transporte aéreo que pressupõem, gerando conectividades, trânsitos e velocidade sistêmica, contribuíram para a súbita globalização do Sars-CoV-2. Para tal são mobilizados dados resultantes de um processo de pesquisa de teor documental em fontes mediáticas, fontes associadas a grandes instituições internacionais de natureza intergovernamental e fontes científicas. A partir desses dados é possível  depreender-se que os contextos turísticos e as respectivas estruturas de mobilidade são o resultado de complexas assemblagens mais- do-que-humanas nas quais emergem condições sociais, ambientais e tecnológicas que funcionam como poderosos vetores estruturais de rápida difusão transnacional de biocontaminantes, responsáveis, em alguns casos, por cenários pandêmicos como aquele em que vivemos desde março de 2020.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Octávio Sacramento, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro

Doutor em Antropologia e professor auxiliar na Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (Utad). É membro integrado do Centro de Estudos Transdisciplinares para o Desenvolvimento (Cetrad-Utad) e colaborador do Centro em Rede de Investigação em Antropologia (Cria). A saúde/doença e as mobilidades (turismo e migrações) estão entre os seus principais interesses de investigação.

Referências

Ali, S. & Keil, R. (eds.). (2008), Networked disease: emerging infections in the global city. Chichester, Blackwell.

Antonescu, A. & Stock, M. (2014), “Reconstructing the globalisation of tourism: a geo-historical perspective”. Annals of Tourism Research, 45C (1): 77-88.

Arrizabalaga, J. (2016), “The global threat of (re)emerging diseases: contesting the adequacy of biomedical discourse and practice”. In: Davis, J. & Gonzalez, A. (eds.). To fix or to heal: patient care, public health, and the limits of biomedicine. Nova York, New York University Press, pp.177-207.

Baker, D. (2015), “Tourism and the health effects of infectious diseases: are there potential risks for tourists?”. International Journal of Safety and Security in Tourism/Hospitality, 1 (12): 1-17.

Baraniuk, C. (2020), “What the Diamond Princess taught the world about covid-19”. BMJ, 369 (m1632).

Beck, U. (1999), World risk society. Malden, Polity Press.

Brito-Henriques, E. (2020), “Covid-19, turismo e sustentabilidade: tudo está interligado”. Finisterra – Revista Portuguesa de Geografia, 55 (115): 205-210.

Brockmann, D. “Human mobility, networks and disease dynamics on a global scale”. In: Bunde, A.; Caro, J.; Kärger, J. & Vogl, G. (2018), (eds.), Diffusive spreading in nature, technology and society. Cham, Springer, pp. 375-396.

Brockmann, D. & Helbing, D. (2013), “The hidden geometry of complex, network-driven contagion phenomena”. Science, 342 (6164): 1337-1342.

Brown, A.; Ahmad, S.; Beck, C. & Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. (2016), “The roles of transportation and transportation hubs in the propagation of influenza and coronaviruses: a systematic review”. Journal of Travel Medicine, 23 (1): tav002.

Brown, P.; Armelagos, G. & Maes, K. (2011), “Humans in a world of microbes: the anthropology of infectious disease”. In: Singer, M.; Erickson, P. (eds.), A companion to medical anthropology. Malden, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 253-270.

Cândido, D. et al. (2020), “Routes for Covid-19 importation in Brazil”. Journal of Travel Medicine, 27 (3): 1-3.

Carter, R. et al. (2021), “Widespread Sars-cov-2 transmission among attendees at a large motorcycle rally and their contacts, 30 us Jurisdictions, August-September, 2020”. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 73 (S1): S106-S109.

Castells, M. (1996), The rise of the network society. Oxford, Blackwell.

Castilho, D. (2020), “Um vírus com dna da globalização: o espectro da perversidade”. Espaço e Economia, 17: 1-7.

Chen, L. & Wilson, M. (2008), “The role of the traveler in emerging infections and magnitude of travel”. The Medical Clinics of North America, 92 (6): 1409-1432.

Chen, S.; Law, R. & Zhang, M. (2021), “Review of research on tourism-related diseases”. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 26 (1): 44-58.

China Daily (2021), “Report: China to see increased domestic tourism in 2021”. https://www.chinadailyhk.com/article/158413.

Colvile, R. (2016), The great acceleration: how the world is getting faster, faster. Nova York, Bloomsbury.

Correa-Martínez, C. et al. (2020), “A pandemic in times of global tourism: superspreading and exportation of Covid-19 cases from a ski area in Austria”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 58 (6): e00588-20.

Crutzen, P. (2002), “Geology of mankind: the Anthropocene”. Nature, 415: 23.

Crutzen, P. & Stoermer, E. (2000), “The Anthropocene”. Global Change Newsletter, 41: 17-18.

Dalton, C.; Katelaris, A. & Wilson, N. (2020), “Open with care: minimising Covid-19 superspreading settings in Australia”. Ssrn, 12 jun.: 1-12.

Dave, D.; McNichols, D. & Sabia, J. (2021), “The contagion externality of a superspreading event: the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally and Covid-19”. Southern Economic Journal, 87: 769-807.

El Mundo (2020), “El caso de Covid-19 detectado en Francia a finales de diciembre podría dar nuevas pistas sobre el origen de la pandemia”. www.elmundo.es/ciencia-salud/salud/2020/05/05/ 5eb19dcefc6c8314388b4610.html.

European Centre For Disease Prevention and Control (2020), “Timeline of ECDC’s response to Covid-19”. https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19/timeline-ecdc-response.

Farzanegan, M.; Gholipour, H.; Feizi, M.; Nunkoo, R. & Andargoli, A. (2021), “International tourism and outbreak of coronavirus (Covid-19): a cross-country analysis”. Journal of Travel Research, 60 (3): 687-692.

Fidler, D. (2004), Sars: governance and the globalization of disease. Nova York, Palgrave Macmillan.

Findlater, A. & Bogoch, I. (2018), “Human mobility and the global spread of infectious diseases: a focus on air travel”. Trends in Parasitology, 34 (9): 772-783.

Gössling, S. (2002), “Global environmental consequences of tourism”. Global Environmental Change, 12 (4): 283-302.

Gössling, S.; Scott, D. & Hall, C. M. (2021), “Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of Covid-19”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29 (1): 1-20.

Graham, J. et al. (2008), “The animal-human interface and infectious disease in industrial food animal production: rethinking biosecurity and biocontainment”. Public Health Reports, 123 (3): 282-299.

Green, M. (2020), “Emerging diseases, re‐emerging histories”. Centaurus, 62: 234-247.

Grout, A.; Howard, N.; Coker, R. & Speakman, E. (2017), “Guidelines, law, and governance: disconnects in the global control of airline-associated infectious diseases”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 17 (4): e118-e122.

Hall, C. M. (2019), “Biological invasion, biosecurity, tourism, and globalization”. In: Dallen, T. (ed.), Handbook of globalisation and tourism. Cheltenham e Northampton, Edward Elgar, pp. 114-125.

Hall, C. M. (2015), “Tourism and biological exchange and invasions: a missing dimension in sustainable tourism?” Tourism Recreation Research, 40 (1): 81-94.

Hall, C. M. & Baird, T. (2013), “Ecotourism, biological invasions and biosecurity”. In: Ballantyne, R.; Packer, J. (eds.), International handbook on ecotourism. Cheltenham e Northampton, Edward Elgar, pp. 66-77.

Hall, C. M.; Scott, D. & Gössling, S. (2020), “Pandemics, transformations and tourism: be careful what you wish for”. Tourism Geographies, 22 (3): 577-598.

Harvey, D. (1992), Condição pós-moderna. São Paulo, Edições Loyola.

Higgins-Desbiolles, F.; Carnicelli, S.; Krolikowski, C.; Wijesinghe, G. & Boluk, K. (2019), “Degrowing tourism: rethinking tourism”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27 (12): 1926-1944.

Hindustan Times News (2021), “Over 1.000 test positive for Covid-19 at Kumbh Mela in 48 hours”. https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/over-1-000-test-positive-for-covid-19-at-india-s-religious-festival-kumbh-101618395394758.html.

Hoang, V.-T.; Gautret, P.; Memish, Z. & Al-Tawfiq, J. (2020), “Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings and Covid-19 infection”. Current Tropical Medicine Reports, 7: 133-140.

Holton, R. (2008), Global networks. Basingstoke e Nova York, Palgrave Macmillan.

Hsu, C. Y. et al. (2021), “Preparedness for containing Covid-19 outbreak in mass religious gathering with non-pharmaceutical interventions (npis)”. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 120: S57-S68.

Iaquinto, B. (2020), “Tourist as vector: viral mobilities of Covid-19”. Dialogues in Human Geography, 10 (2): 174-177.

International Civil Aviation Organization (2019a), “Presentation of 2019 air transport statistical results”. https://www.icao.int/annual-report-2019/Documents/arc_2019_Air%20Transport%20Statistics.pdf.

International Civil Aviation Organization (2019b), “New traffic flow 2019 OAGDATA”. https://gis.icao.int/gallery/trafficflow2019zoomsimpop.pdf.

Ioannides, D. & Gyimóthy, S. (2020), “The Covid-19 crisis as an opportunity for escaping the unsustainable global tourism path”. Tourism Geographies, 22 (3): 624-632.

Khan, K. et al. (2009), “Spread of a novel influenza a (h1n1) virus via global airline transportation”. The New England Journal of Medicine, 361: 212-214.

Khan, K. et al. (2010), “Global public health implications of a mass gathering in Mecca, Saudi Arabia during the midst of an influenza pandemic”. Journal of Travel Medicine, 17 (2): 75-81.

Knight, D.; Xiong, L.; Lan, W. & Gong, J. (2020), “Impact of Covid-19: research note on tourism and hospitality sectors in the epicenter of Wuhan and Hubei Province, China”. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32 (12): 3705-3719.

Koens, K.; Postma, A. & Papp, B. (2018), “Is overtourism overused? Understanding the impact of tourism in a city context”. Sustainability, 10 (12): 2-15.

Kraemer, M. et al. (2015), “The global distribution of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. Albopictus”. eLife, 4: e08347.

Kreidl, P. et al. (2020), “Emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in Austria”. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 132 (21): 645-652.

Lau, H. et al. (2020), “The association between international and domestic air traffic and the coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak”. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 53 (3): 467-472.

Lupton, D. (2021), “Contextualising Covid-19: sociocultural perspectives on contagion”. In: Lupton, D. & Willis, K. (eds.). The Covid-19 crisis: social perspectives. Londres, Routledge, pp.14-24.

Mat, N. C.; Edinur, H.; Razab, M. & Safuan, S. (2020), “A single mass gathering resulted in massive transmission of Covid-19 infections in Malaysia with further international spread”. Journal of Travel Medicine, 27 (3): 1-9.

McMahon, F. (1999), “‘Playing with play’: Germany’s Carnival as esthetic nonsense”. In: Reifel, R. (ed.). Play & culture studies: play contexts revisited. Stamford, Ablex, pp. 177-187.

Mcneill, J. & Engelke, P. (2016), The great acceleration: an environmental history of the Anthropocene since 1945. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Medizinische Universität Innsbruck News (2020), “Ischgl-Studie. 42,4 prozent sind antikörper-positiv”. https://www.i-med.ac.at/mypoint/news/746359.html.

Melly, D.; Hanrahan, J. (2021), “Tourism biosecurity risk management and planning: an international comparative analysis and implications for Ireland”. Tourism Review, 76 (1): 88-102.

Milano, C.; Cheer, J. & Novelli, M. (eds.) (2019), Overtourism: excesses, discontents and measures in travel and tourism. Wallingford e Boston, Cabi.

Mubarak, N. & Zin, C. S. (2020), “Religious tourism and mass religious gatherings – the potential link in the spread of Covid-19. Current perspective and future implications”. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 36: 101786.

Murphy, N. et al. (2020), “A large national outbreak of Covid-19 linked to air travel, Ireland, summer 2020”. Eurosurveillance, 25 (42): 2001624.

Nguyen, V.-K. (2017), “Viral speed: infrastructure, connectivity, ontogeny; or, notes on the molecular epidemiology of epidemics”. Cultural Anthropology, 32 (1): 28-34.

Organização das Nações Unidas (2020), “Policy brief: Covid-19 and transforming tourism”. https://unsdg.un.org/sites/default/files/2020-08/sg_policy_brief_covid-19_tourism_august_2020.pdf.

Paula, Â. & Herédia, V. (2020), “Covid-19 and cruise ships: a drama announced”. Études Caribéennes, 47, 15 dez.

Pavli, A. et al. (2020), “In-flight transmission of Covid-19 on flights to Greece: an epidemiological analysis”. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 38: 101882.

Plucinski, M. et al. (2021), “Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in Americans aboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship”. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 72 (10): e448-e457.

Plümper, T. & Neumayer, E. (2020), “The Covid-19 pandemic predominantly hits poor neighborhoods, or does it? Evidence from Germany”. medRxiv. https://www.medrxiv.org/

content/10.1101/2020.05.18.20105395v1.full.pdf.

Quigley, A.; Nguyen, P. Y.; Stone, H.; Lim, S. & Macintyre, C. R. (2021), “Cruise ship travel and the spread of Covid-19: Australia as a case study”. International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health, 9 (1): 10-18.

Richardson, E. (2020), “Pandemicity, Covid-19 and the limits of public health ‘science’”. BMJ Global Health, 5: e002571.

Richter, L. (2003), “International tourism and its global public health consequences”. Journal of Travel Research, 41 (4): 340-347.

Rolling Stone (2020), “‘Freedom-loving people’: behind the scenes at that controversial Smash Mouth show in South Dakota”. https://www.rollingstone.com/music/music-news/sturgis-covid-19-biker-fest-smash-mouth-1043040/.

Sabin, N. et al. (2020), “Implications of human activities for (re)emerging infectious diseases including Covid-19”. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 39 (29): 2-12.

Schmid, S. (2020), Swabian-Alemannic Carnival in German society today. Roterdã, dissertação de mestrado, Universidade de Roterdão. https://thesis.eur.nl/pub/56218/.

Sharma, A. & Nicolau, J. (2020), “An open market valuation of the effects of Covid-19 on the travel and tourism industry”. Annals of Tourism Research, 83: 10299.

Shi, Q. & Liu, T. (2020), “Should internal migrants be held accountable for spreading Covid-19?”. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 52, (4): 695-697.

Sokadjo, Y.; Atchadé, M. (2020), “The influence of passenger air traffic on the spread of Covid-19 in the world”. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 8: 100213.

Steffen, W.; Crutzen, P. & Mcneill, J. (2007), “The Anthropocene: are humans now overwhelming the great forces of Nature?”. Ambio, 36 (8): 614-621.

Swadi, T. et al. (2021), “Genomic evidence of in-flight transmission of Sars-cov-2 despite predeparture testing”. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 27 (3): 687-693.

Tatem, A. (2014), “Mapping population and pathogen movements”. International Health, 6 (1): 5-11.

The Guardian (2020), “‘Everyone was drenched in the virus’: was this Austrian ski resort a Covid-19 ground zero?”. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/sep/05/everyone--was-drenched-in-the-virus-was-this-austrian-ski-resort-a-covid-19-ground-zero.

Uğur, N. & Akbiyik, A. (2020), “Impacts of Covid-19 on global tourism industry: a cross-regional comparison”. Tourism Management Perspectives, 36: 100744.

Virilio, P. (2000), A velocidade de libertação. Lisboa, Relógio d’Água.

Virilio, P. (2005), L’accident originel. Paris, Galilée.

Wilder-Smith, A. (2006), “The severe acute respiratory syndrome: impact on travel and tourism”. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 4 (2): 53-60.

Wilson, M. (2003), “The traveller and emerging infections: sentinel, courier, transmitter”. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 94: 1S-11S.

Wilson, M. (2020), “What goes on board aircraft? Passengers include Aedes, Anopheles, 2019-nCoV, Dengue, Salmonella, Zika, et al.”. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 33: 101572.

Wolf, M. (2015), “Is there really such a thing as ‘one health’? Thinking about a more than human world from the perspective of cultural anthropology”. Social Science & Medicine, 129: 5-11.

World Tourism Organization (2021), International tourism highlights, 2020 edition. Madri, WTO.

Downloads

Publicado

2022-08-29

Como Citar

Sacramento, O. (2022). Vírus em viagem: fluxos turísticos globais e propagação pandémica da Covid-19. Tempo Social, 34(2), 257-276. https://doi.org/10.11606/0103-2070.ts.2022.192389

Edição

Seção

Artigos