Association between antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress among patients with a complete hydatidiform mole



Complete hydatidiform mole, Gestational trophoblastic disease, Oxidative stress, Antioxidants, Vitamins


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the potential relationship between oxidative stress, dietary intake, and serum levels of antioxidants in patients with a complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) compared with controls. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 140 women were enrolled in this study and divided into four groups: 43 patients with CHM, 33 women who had had an abortion, 32 healthy pregnant women, and 32 healthy non-pregnant women. All participants underwent blood sampling, assessment using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurement. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting (10-12 h). Vitamin levels (A, C, and E) were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels were assessed using an automated quantitative analysis system (Dimensions, Siemens). RESULTS: Although all groups showed sufficient serum vitamin A and E levels, the participants had inadequate dietary intake of these vitamins. Conversely, all groups had an insufficient serum level of vitamin C, despite adequate intake. The gamma-glutamyl transferase values did not differ significantly among the groups. However, elevated serum levels of this enzyme were observed in several patients. CONCLUSIONS: All groups exhibited high levels of oxidative stress, as evaluated by gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, and had inadequate intake of antioxidant vitamins. Therefore, the high exposure to oxidative stress found in our study, even in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women, may increase the incidence of CHM in this region.


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How to Cite

Ferraz, L., Ramos, C. A. B., Braga, A., Velarde, L. G. C., Elias, K. M., Horowitz, N. S., Lopes, P. F., & Berkowitz, R. S. (2020). Association between antioxidant vitamins and oxidative stress among patients with a complete hydatidiform mole. Clinics, 75, e1724. Retrieved from



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