Sex and Gender and Sex


  • Stephanie Lynn Budin American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR)



Feminismo, Genética, Gênero, Virgjinéshē, Devadāsī


This article challenges some of the prevailing notions pertaining to non-binary sex and fluid gender in modern academia. Beginning with a look at the history of the sex vs. gender debate, it turns to the study of genetics to determine how binary sex is, overturning many current beliefs about the biological bases of multiple sexes. It then considers four case studies of so-called fluid gender in world history—Mesopotamian women as men, Albanian virgjinéshē, and Indian devadāsīs and sādhini—which show that these apparently “male women” never lose their feminine gender in spite of provisional male prerogatives.  In all cases, it is their sexuality that ties them to their gender. The article ends with a consideration of how unreflective adoption of non-binary sex and fluid gender undermines the goals of feminism.


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Biografia do Autor

Stephanie Lynn Budin, American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR)

Stephanie Lynn Budin is an ancient historian who focuses on gender, religion, sexuality, and iconography in ancient Greece and the Near East. Her published works include Women in Antiquity: Real Women Across the Ancient World (Routledge 2016), Artemis (Routledge, 2015), Images of Woman and Child from the Bronze Age (Cambridge University Press, 2011), The Myth of Sacred Prostitution in Antiquity (Cambridge University Press, 2008), and The Origin of Aphrodite (CDL Press, 2003), as well as numerous articles on ancient religion, gender, and iconography.  She has lectured throughout North America, Europe, the Near East, and Japan.


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Como Citar

Budin, S. L. (2020). Sex and Gender and Sex. Mare Nostrum, 11(1), 1-59.