Career Interventions for Promoting Gender Equality: Methodological Aspects




gender, professional development, women, work, working women


Women commonly face a complex network of barriers that hinder their career trajectory. Therefore, this study aims to address career interventions as a methodological strategy to minimize gender inequalities in the workplace. Given the scenario of inequalities experienced by women, attention in the development of interventions is needed, so that problems are not worsened with superficial initiatives that focus only on individuals. This article discusses gender inequality in careers; presents recommendations for research with interventions; exemplifies some interventions and provides a step-by-step guide for designing them, which consists of choosing the theoretical framework, defining the objectives, target audience and context, identifying resources, structuring the intervention, defining the content, activities and assessment. The limits and possibilities of using interventions in research on gender and career are discussed, in addition to the challenges of this scientific field.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

  • Ligia Carolina Oliveira-Silva, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia

    Australian National University, Canberra-ACT, Australia


Barbosa, V. N. M., & Moura, J. F. (2021). Intersecções entre gênero, raça e pobreza na vida de mulheres no nordeste do Brasil [Intersections between gender, race and poverty in women in the northeast of Brazil]. Estudos e Pesquisas em Psicologia, 21(4), 1478-1499.

Benevides, B. G., & Nogueira, S. N. B. (2020). Dossiê assassinatos e violência contra travestis e transexuais brasileiras em 2019 [Report on murders and violence against Brazilian transvestites and transsexuals in 2019]. ANTRA.

Bezrukova, K., Spell, C. S., Perry, J. L., & Jehn, K. A. (2016). A meta-analytical integration of over 40 years of research on diversity training evaluation. Psychological Bulletin, 142(11), 1227-1274.

Catalyst. (2022). Women in management (Quick take).

Chang, E. H., Milkman, K. L., Gromet, D. M., Rebele, R. W., Massey, C., Duckworth, A. L., & Grant, A. M. (2019). The mixed effects of online diversity training. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(16), 7778-7783.

Collins, C., Landivar, L. C., Ruppanner, L., & Scarborough, W. J. (2021). COVID‐19 and the gender gap in work hours. Gender, Work & Organization, 28(S1), 101-112.

Dobbin, F., & Kalev, A. (2018). Why doesn't diversity training work? The challenge for industry and academia. Anthropology Now, 10(2), 48-55.

Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Diekman, A. B. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: A current appraisal. In T. Eckes, & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), The developmental social psychology of gender (pp. 123–174). Erlbaum.

Falco, L. D., & Summers, J. J. (2019). Improving career decision self-efficacy and STEM self-efficacy in high school girls: Evaluation of an intervention. Journal of Career Development, 46(1), 62-76.

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (2011). Ambivalent sexism revisited. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(3), 530–535.

Guthridge, M., Kirkman, M., Penovic, T., & Giummarra, M. J. (2022). Promoting gender equality: A systematic review of interventions. Social Justice Research, 35(3), 318-343.

Holloway-Friesen, H. (2021). The role of mentoring on hispanic graduate students’ sense of belonging and academic self-efficacy. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 20(1), 46–58.

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. (2019). Desigualdades sociais por cor ou raça no Brasi [Social inequalities by color or race in Brazil].

Kossek, E. E., Su, R., & Wu, L. (2017). “Opting out” or “pushed out”? Integrating perspectives on women’s career equality for gender inclusion and interventions. Journal of Management, 43(1), 228-254.

Lau, P. L., Chung, Y. B., & Wang, L. (2021). Effects of a career exploration intervention on students’ career maturity and self-concept. Journal of Career Development, 48(4), 311-324.

Lau, V. W. Y., Scott, V. L., Warren, M. A., & Bligh, M. C. (2023). Moving from problems to solutions: A review of gender equality interventions at work using an ecological systems approach. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 44(2), 399-–419.

Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2019). Social cognitive career theory at 25: Empirical status of the interest, choice, and performance models. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 115, 103316.

Ly, A. (2022). Developing future global leaders' competencies in a business school course: A case study of a course design inspired by team-based learning. In J. S. Osland, B. S. Reiche, B. Szkudlarek, & M. E. Mendenhall (Eds.), Advances in global leadership (Vol. 14). Emerald Publishing.

Morici, R., Massaro, D., Brajda Bruno, F., & Boerchi, D. (2022). Increasing refugees’ work and job search self-efficacy perceptions by developing career adaptability. Social Sciences, 11(5), 197.

Mullen, C. A., & Klimaitis, C. C. (2021). Defining mentoring: A literature review of issues, types, and applications. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1483(1), 19-35.

Oliveira-Silva, L. C., & Parreira, V. A. D. (2022). Barriers and coping of women in predominantly male careers. Revista Estudos Feministas, 30(1), e74161.

Oliveira-Silva, L. C., & Pellissari, M. E. C. (2023). Mentoria de carreira para universitárias em STEM: Relato de intervenção [Career mentoring for university students in STEM: Intervention report]. In A. L. Andrade, D. Boucinha, F. P. Ramos, & M. Z. Oliveira (Orgs.), Intervenções em carreira e promoção de saúde mental para universitários [Career interventions and mental health promotion for university students] (pp. 135-153). Editora da PUCRS.

Phillips, S. D. (2023). Women and career development: Some new answers, many more questions. The Counseling Psychologist, 51(6), 00110000231173463.

Pires, F. M., Ribeiro, M. A., & Andrade, A. L. D. (2020). The Psychology of Working Theory: An inclusive perspective for career guidance. Revista Brasileira de Orientação Profissional, 21(2), 203-214.

Santos, A. R., & Ribeiro, M. A. (2021). Revisão integrativa: Avaliação de intervenções em orientação profissional e de carreira com adultos [Adults career guidance and counseling intervention assessment: An integrative review]. Revista Brasileira de Orientação Profissional, 22(2), 109-121.

Ryan, M. (2022). To advance equality for women, use the evidence. Nature, 604(7906), 403.

Warren, M. A., & Bordoloi, S. D. (2021). Going beyond good colleagues: Men’s and women’s perspectives on allyship behaviors toward women faculty in male-dominated disciplines in academia. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education.

Wong, C. Y. E., Kirby, T. A., Rink, F., & Ryan, M. K. (2022). Intersectional invisibility in women’s diversity interventions. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 791572.

World Economic Forum (2022). Global gender gap report 2022.






Thematic Dossier “Methodological Challenges in Psychology: Contributions to Academic Practice and Training”

How to Cite

Oliveira-Silva, L. C. ., & Barbosa-Silva, L. . (2024). Career Interventions for Promoting Gender Equality: Methodological Aspects. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto), 33, e3320.