Morphology and biological notes of Macrosiagon octomaculata (Gerstaecker) triungulinid and a summary of the knowledge on immature stages of the genus (Ripiphoridae)




Wedge-shaped beetle, Tenebrionoidea, Ripiphorinae, Macrosiagonini, Primary larva, Thynnidae, Eriocaulaceae


Species of Macrosiagon Hentz are known to be wasp and bee parasitoids. Here, we present information on Macrosiagon octomaculata (Gerstaecker, 1855), including eggs and triungulinids, found on Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong.) Sano (Eriocaulaceae) blooming in restinga habitat on Santa Catarina Island, South Brazil. This is the first record of an Eriocaulaceae species playing an important role in the Macrosiagon bionomics and the first accurate record of Ripiphoridae for southern Brazil, Santa Catarina state. In the study area, P. polyanthus attracted an inordinate number of insect species and one Thynnidae wasp was captured with a triungulinid on its wing. Eggs and triungulinids were also found on one plant of P. polyanthus and associated with M. octomaculata. We provide descriptions of the female reproductive organs as well as the morphology of the triungulinid of M. octomaculata. A detailed examination of the triungulinid revealed novelties that complement information from previous publications regarding the Ripiphoridae. We also compare triungulinids of M. octomaculata with those of other species, and provide a table summarizing comparative characters. Finally, we provide a table with current information on the recorded host species and immatures of Macrosiagon.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

  • Mônica Antunes Ulysséa, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Museu de Zoologia (MZUSP) - São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

    Avenida Nazaré, 481, Ipiranga, CEP 04263-000, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

  • Fabiano Fabian Albertoni, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Museu de Zoologia (MZUSP) - São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

    Avenida Nazaré, 481, Ipiranga, CEP 04263-000, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.


Andrade, M.J.G. de; Giulietti, A.M.; Rapini, A.; Queiroz, L.P. de; Conceição, A. de S.; Almeida, P.R.M. de & Berg, C. van den. 2010. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Eriocaulaceae: Evidence from nuclear (ITS) and plastid (psbA-trnH and trnL-F) DNA sequences. Taxon, 59(2): 379-388.

Barber, H.S. 1915. Macrosiagon flavipennis in cocoon of Bembex spinolae (Coleoptera: Rhipiphoridae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 17: 187-188.

Barclay, M.V.L. 2015. Ivierhipidius, an enigmatic new Neotropical genus of Ripiphoridae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) with four new species. Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 55(2): 691-701.

Batelka, J. 2004. Contribution on the synonymy of Palaearctic and Oriental species of Macrosiagon (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae). Part II. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae, 68: 9-13.

Batelka, J. 2007. Taxonomy and distribution of Palaearctic and Oriental species of the genus Macrosiagon (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae). Part III. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 112: 239-248.

Batelka, J. 2010. A review of Ripiphoridae in the Arabian Peninsula (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 50(1): 157-166.

Batelka, J. 2011a. Primary larvae of some Ripiphorinae: their phoresy and dispersal (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 51(2): 731-756.

Batelka, J. 2011b. Contribution to the synonymies, distributions, and bionomics of the Old World species of Macrosiagon (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 51(2): 587-626.

Batelka, J. 2013. A review of the genus Macrosiagon in Laos (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae). Entomologica Basiliensia et Collections Frey, 34: 319-325.

Batelka, J. & Chaboo, C.S. 2015. Beetles (Coleoptera) of Peru: A Survey of the Families. Ripiphoridae Gemminger and Harold, 1870. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 88(3): 399-403.

Batelka, J. & Hoehn, P. 2007. Report on the host-associations of the genus Macrosiagon (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae) in Sulawesi (Indonesia). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 47: 143-152.

Batelka, J. & Straka, J. 2011. Ripiphorus caboverdianus sp. nov.-the first ripiphorid record from the Macaronesian volcanic islands (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae: Ripiphorinae). Zootaxa, 2792: 51-62.

Batelka, J.; Kundrata, R. & Bocak, L. 2016. Position and relationships of Ripiphoridae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) inferred from ribosomal and mitochondrial molecular markers. Annales Zoologici, 66(1): 113-123.

Batelka, J.; Perkovsky, E.E. & Prokop, J. 2019a. Diversity of Eocene Ripiphoridae with descriptions of the first species of Pelecotominae and larva of Ripidiinae (Coleoptera). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 188(2): 412-433.

Batelka, J.; Prokop, J.; Pohl, H.; Bai, M.; Zhang, W. & Beutel, R.G. 2019b. Highly specialized Cretaceous beetle parasitoids (Ripiphoridae) identified with optimized visualization of microstructures. Systematic Entomology, 44: 396-407.

Bequaert, J.C. 1918. A revision of the Vespidae of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, with a list of Ethiopian diplopterous wasps. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 39: 1-384.

Besuchet, C. 1956. Biologie, morphologie et systematique des Rhipidius. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 29: 73-144.

Bologna, M.A.; Turco, F. & Pinto, J.D. 2010. 11.19 Meloidae Gyllenhal 1810. In: Leschen, R.A.B.; Beutel, R.G. & Lawrence, J.F. (Eds.). Coleoptera, Beetles. Vol. 2: Morphology and systematics (Elateroidea, Bostrichiformia, Cucujiformia partim). Berlin, Walter de Gruyter. p. 681-693. (Handbook of Zoology, Arthropoda: Insecta)

Böving, A.G. & Craighead, F.C. 1931. An illustrated synopsis of the principal larval forms of the order Coleoptera. Entomologica Americana, 11: 1-351.

Callan, E. McC. 1981: Further records of Macrosiagon (Coleoptera: Rhipiphoridae) reared from eumenid and sphecid wasps in Australia. Australian Entomological Magazine, 7: 81-83.

Campbell, J.M. 1991. Family Rhipiphoridae: wedge-shaped beetles. In: Bousquet, Y. (Ed.). Checklist of Beetles of Canada and Alaska. Ottawa, Agriculture Canada, Research Branch. p. 250-251. (Publication 1861/E).

Castellani, T.T. & d’Eça-Neves, F.F. 2000. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus: Predispersal hazards and seed production. Acta Botânica Brasileira, 14(3): 317-326.

Castellani, T.T.; Scherer, K.Z. & Paula, G.S. 2001. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong.) Kunth: demography and life history of a sand dune monocarpic plant. Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 24(2): 123-134.

Castellani, T.T.; Vieira, S. & Scherer, K.Z. 1996. Contribuição ao conhecimento da distribuição espacial de Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong.) Kunth (Eriocaulaceae) em áreas de baixada úmida de dunas. Acta Botânica Brasilica, 10: 25-36.

Chapman, T.A. 1870. Some facts towards a life-history of Rhipiphorus paradoxus. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Serie 4, 6: 314-326.

Chear, C.K. & Dol, S.S. 2015. Vehicle Aerodynamics: Drag Reduction by Surface Dimples. International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, 9(1): 202-205.

Chobaut, A. 1891a. Mœurs et métamorphoses de Emenadia flabellata F. Insecte coléoptères de la famille des Rhipiphorides (1). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 60: 447-456.

Chobaut, A. 1891b. Mœurs et métamorphoses de L’Emenadia flabellata. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologia et Paléontologia, 12: 97-112.

Chobaut, A. 1895. Étude sur les Macrosiagon Hentz (Emenadia Lap.-Cast.) de la région méditerranéenne. I. Moeurs et métamorphoses des Macrosiagon. L’Abeille Journal d’Entomologie, 28: 181-183.

Chobaut, A. 1906. Le triongulinide de Macrosiagon tricuspidata Lepech. [Col.]. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, (1906): 270-272.

Cillo, D.; Mura, R. & Bazzato, E. 2019. On the presence of Macrosiagon ferruginea (Fabricius, 1775) in northern Tunisia (Coleoptera, Ripiphoridae, Ripiphorinae, Macrosiagonini). Entomological News, 128(4): 351-355.

Clausen, C.P. 1940. Entomophagous Insects. New York, McGraw-Hill. x + 688p.

Clausen, C.P. 1976. Phoresy among entomophagous insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 21: 343-367.

Coll, F.E. 1942. Los representantes catalanes de la família “Rhipiphoridae” (Col.). Anales de la Escuela de Peritos Agrícolas y Superior de Agricultura y de los Servicios Técnicos de Agricultura, 2(4): 335-346.

Costa, C.; Vanin, S.A. & Casari-Chen, S.A. 1988. Larvas de Coleoptera do Brasil. São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. 282p.

Davis, J.J. 1919. Contributions to knowledge of the natural enemies of Phyllophaga. Bulletin of the Illinois State Natural History Survey Bulletin, 13: 53-138 + 15 pl.

Dodd, A.P. 1917. The Cane Grubs of Australia. Part II. Being a continuation of the results of investigations as commenced in Bulletin No. 2. Bulletin. Division of Entomology, Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations, Queensland, 6: 1-30.

Elliott, M.G. 2011. Annotated catalogue of the Australian Scoliidae (Hymenoptera). Technical Reports of the Australian Museum, 22: 1-17.

Evans, H.E.; Matthews, R.W. & Hoo, A. 1966. Notes on the nests and prey of six species of Pison in Australia (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Psyche, 87: 221-230.

Falin, Z.H. 2002a. Ripiphoridae Gemminger and Harold 1870 (1853). In: Arnett, R.H.; Thomas, M.C.; Skelley, P.E. & Frank, J.H. (Eds.). American Beetles. Volume 2, Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea. Florida, CRC Press. p. 431-444.

Falin, Z.H. 2002b. Notes on the South American ripiphorid Macrosiagon vittula (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae). Entomological News, 113(3): 192-196.

Falin, Z.H. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis and revision of the genera and subfamilies of Ripiphoridae (Coleoptera). PhD Thesis, University of Kansas. 560p.

Falin, Z.H. 2004. Revision of three new world Macrosiagon Hentz species (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae: Ripiphorinae) with a discussion of phylogenetic relationships within the Macrosiagonini. The Coleopterists Bulletin, 58: 1-19.

Falin, Z.H. & Engel, M.S. 2014. A new genus and two new extant species closely allied with the fossil genus Pauroripidius (Coleoptera: Rhipiphoridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 87(4): 333-344.

Falin, Z.H.; Arneson, L.C. & Wcislo, W.T. 2001. Night-flying sweat bees Megalopta genalis and Me. Acuadoria (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) as host of the Parasitoid beetle Macrosiagon gracilis (Coleoptera: Rhipiphoridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 73(3): 183-185.

Farines, M. 1826. Observations sur la larve du Ripiphorus bimaculatus. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 8 : 244.

Fernández, F.F. & Sharkey, M.J. (Eds). 2006. Introducción a los Hymenoptera de la región neotropical. Bogotá D.C., Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología y Universidad Nacional de Colombia. xxx + 894p.

Genaro, J.A. 1996. Nest parasites (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera) of some wasps and bees (Vespidae, Sphecidae, Colletidae, Megachilidae, Anthophoridae) in Cuba. Caribbean Journal of Science, 32(2): 239-240.

Gerstaecker, A. 1855. Rhipiphoridum Coleopterorum familiae dispositio systematica. Berolini, Friderici Nicolai. 36p.

González, U. & Juárez, G. 2016. Primer registro de Macrosiagon octomaculata (Gerstaecker, 1855) para Perú (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae). Boletín de la Sociedade Entomológica Aragonesa, 59: 290.

Grandi, G. 1936. Morfologia ed etologia comparata di Insetti a regime specializzato. XII Macrosiagon ferrugineum flabellatum F. Bollettino dell’ Istituto di Entomologia dela Universita di Bologna, 9: 33-34.

Heitmans, W.; Heitmans, R.B.; Peeters, T.M.J.; Rond, J. de & Smit, J. 1994. A survey of the Western European Rhipiphoridae including the first record of a Macrosiagon species in the Netherlands (Coleoptera). Entomologische Berichten, 54(11): 201-211.

Horn, G.H. 1875. Notes on the species of Ripiphorus of the United States. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 5: 121-125.

Hunt, J.H. 1999. Trait mapping and salience in the evolution of eusocial Vespid wasps. Evolution, 53(1): 225-237.

Jarvis, E. 1922. Early stages of Macrosiagon cucullata MacL. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 17: 307.

Lawrence, J.F.; Falin, Z.H. & Ślipiński, A. 2010. 11.8 Ripiphoridae Gemminger and Harold, 1870 (Gerstaecker, 1855). In: Leschen, R.A.B.; Beutel, R.G. & Lawrence, J.F. (Eds.). Coleoptera, Beetles. Vol. 2: Morphology and systematics (Elateroidea, Bostrichiformia, Cucujiformia partim). Berlin, Walter de Gruyter. p. 538-548. (Handbook of Zoology, Arthropoda: Insecta).

LeConte, J.L. 1858. Catalogue of Coleoptera of the region adjacent to the boundary line between the United States and Mexico. Journal of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, 4(2): 9-42.

Linsley, E.G. & MacSwain, J.W. 1951. The Rhipiphoridae of California (Coleoptera). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey, 1(3): 79-88.

Linsley, E.G.; MacSwain, J.W. & Smith, R.F. 1952. The life history and development of Rhipiphorus smithi with notes on their phylogenetic significance (Coleoptera, Rhipiphoridae). University of California Publications in Entomology, 9(4): 291-314.

López-Colón, J.I. 1997. Revisión taxonómica y distribución de Macrosiagon pallidipennis Reitter, 1898 (Coleoptera: Rhipiphoridae). Zapateri Revista Aragonesa de Entomología, 7: 245-250.

Luo, Y.; Wang, L.; Green, L.; Song, K.; Wang, L. & Smith, R. 2015. Advances of drag-reducing surface technologies in turbulence based on boundary layer control. Journal of Hydrodynamics, 27(4): 473-487.

Majka, C.G.; Chandler, D.S.; Sheffield, C.S. & Webster, R.P. 2006. New records of Ripiphoridae (Coleoptera) from the Maritime provinces of Canada. The Coleopterists Bulletin, 60(4): 299-303.[299:NRORCF]2.0.CO;2

Manfrini de Brewer, M. 1966. Subfamilia Ripiphorinae (Col. Ripiphoridae) revision de las especies Argentinas del genero Macrosiagon Hentz. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, 27: 5-53.

Matthews, R.W. & González, J.M. 2004. Nesting biology of Zeta argillaceum (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) in Southern Florida, U.S. Florida Entomologist, 87(1): 37-40.

Nowell, W. 1915. Two scoliid parasites on scarabaeid larvae in Barbados. Annals of Applied Biology, 2(1): 46-57.

Pinto, J.D. 2003. Hypermetamorphosis. In: Resh, V.H. & Cardé, R.T. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Insects. New York, Academic Press. p. 546-549.

Pohl, H. 2002. Phylogeny of the Strepsiptera based on morphological data of the first instar larvae. Zoologica Scripta, 31: 123-134.

Pohl, H. & Beutel, R.G. 2004. Fine structure of adhesive devices of Strepsiptera (Insecta). Arthropod Structure & Development, 33: 31-43.

Pohl, H. & R.G. Beutel. 2008. The evolution of Strepsiptera (Hexapoda). Zoology, Jena, 111(4): 318-338.

Poole, R.W. & Gentili, P. 1996. Nomina Insecta Nearctica: a check list of the insects of North America. Volume 1: Coleoptera, Strepsiptera. Rockville, Entomological Information Services. 827p.

Razzak, M.A. 2018. Drag reduction using microcavity on flat surface. In: Offshore Technology Conference. Proceedings. Kuala Lumpur, Malasia, 2018. 6p. (OTC – 28482 – MS).

Riley, C.V. 1874. The unadorned Tiphia, or white grub parasite – Tiphia iiwniata Say. Annual report Institut of Missouri, 6º. p. 123-126.

Rivnay, E. 1929. Revision of the Rhipiphoridae of North and Central America (Coleoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Society, 6: 1-68.

Robertson, C. 1924. Flowers and Insects XXIII. Botanical Gazette, 78(1): 68-84.

Roubaud, E. 1910. Recherches sur la Biologie des Synagris. Évolution de l’instinct chez les Guêpes Solitaires. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 79: 1-21.

Rozen, J.G. 1997. New taxa of brachynomadine bees (Apidae: Nomadinae). American Museum Novitates, 3200: 1-26.

Sánchez Rodríguez, J.L. 2001. Contribución al conocimiento de los Rhipiphoridae (Coleoptera) en Andalucía. Boletín de la Sociedad Andaluza de Entomología, 2: 29-32.

Sano, P.T. 2001. Actinocephalus (Körn.) Sano (Paepalanthus sect. Actinocephalus), a new genus of Eriocaulaceae, and other taxonomic and nomenclatural changes involving Paepalanthus Mart. Taxon, 53(1): 99-107.

Scherer, K.Z. & Castellani, T.T. 2004. Ecologia populacional de Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong.) Kunth: variação temporal da distribuição espacial. Biotemas, 17(2): 27-45.

Selander, R.B. 1991a. Rhipiphoridae (Tenebrionoidea). In: Stehr, F.W. (Ed.). Immature Insects. Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Publ.Co. v. 2, p. 509-512.

Selander, R.B. 1991b. Meloidae (Tenebrionoidea). In: Stehr, F.W. (Ed.). Immature Insects. Iowa, Kendall/Hunt Publ.Co. v. 2, p. 530-535.

Silvestri, F. 1906. Descrizione di un nuovo genere di Rhipiphoridae. Redia Giornale di Entomologia, 3: 315-324 + pl. XX.

Smith, T.J.R. 1971. Field notes on the occurrence of Hemithynnus hyalinatus (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae) as a parasite of Scarabaeids on the New England Tablelands. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 10: 265-270.

Snelling, R.R. 1963: A host of Macrosaigon [sic!] cruentum (Genmar) [sic!] in Georgia. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 39: 87-88.

Švácha, P. 1994. Bionomics, behaviour and immature stages of Pelecotoma fennica (Paykull) (Coleoptera: Rhipiphoridae). Journal of Natural History, 28(3): 585-618.

Tomlin, A.D. & J.J. Miller. 1989. Physical and Behavioral Factors Governing the Pattern and Distribution of Rhipiphoridae (Coleoptera) Attached to Wings of Halictidae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 82(6): 785-791.

Vaurie, P. 1955. A review of the genus Macrosiagon in Mexico, with notes on Rhipiphorus (Coleoptera, Rhipiphoridae). American Museum Novitates, 1717: 1-19.

Verdugo, A. 2010. Segundo registro de Macrosiagon ferruginea (Fabricius, 1775) para la provincia de Cádiz (España) (Coleoptera, Ripiphoridae). Revista Gaditana de Entomología, 1(1): 24-26.

Yamane, S. 1990. A revision of the Japanese Eumenidae (Hymenoptera, Vespoidea). Insecta Matsumurana, 43: 1-189.






Original Article

How to Cite

Ulysséa, M. A., & Albertoni, F. F. (2020). Morphology and biological notes of Macrosiagon octomaculata (Gerstaecker) triungulinid and a summary of the knowledge on immature stages of the genus (Ripiphoridae). Papéis Avulsos De Zoologia, 60(special), e202060(s.i.).25.

Funding data