Impact of workplace safety on employee retention using sequential mediation: evidence from the health-care sector


  • Universiti Utara Malaysia
  • Universiti Utara Malaysia
  • Universiti Utara Malaysia
  • Universiti Utara Malaysia


Workplacesafety, Job satisfaction, Employee loyalty, Employee retention, Health-care sector, Azad Jammu and Kashmir



This study aims to examine the impact of workplace safety (WPS) on employee retention (ER) in the health-care sector in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K), Pakistan. At the same time, a mediation relationship through job satisfaction (JS) and employee loyalty (EL) was also tested.


Structured questionnaires were used to collect the data from 300 doctors, using purposive sampling technique analysed using partial least squares (Smart-PLS 3).


This study’s findings supported all hypotheses, such as WPS has a significant positive relationship with ER. In addition, a mediation relationship between JS and EL was also confirmed. Furthermore, a serial mediation effect of JS and EL between WPS and ER was also confirmed in this study.

Research limitations/implications

This study might not fit organisations from other regions due to regional norms. In the future, this study’s model may be tested on other regions and segments of the health-care sector, such as nurses, management staff and support staff.

Practical implications

The present study is unique because it is based on a newly formulated framework, WPS → JS → EL → ER, under the social exchange theory, which has not been tested before.

Social implications

In a safe environment, doctors will feel relaxed, stay longer and provide better services; resultantly, patients will get better treatment.


This study tested the sequential mediation effect through JS and EL for the first time in ER, which was missing previously, to the best of the authors’ knowledge. This will add more insights to the safety-retention literature in health-care settings. Furthermore, this study is also the first attempt to explore the relationship between WPS and ER in the health-care sector in AJ&K.


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