Structural determinants of health, race, gender, and social class: a scope review

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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-12902021200743

Keywords:

Social Determinants of Health, Health Policy, Health Care Levels, Health Services Accessibility

Abstract

This article aims at exploring and systematizing the knowledge about structural health determinants. For such purpose, we developed a scope review in the databases Web of Science, Cinahl, Scopus, Lilacs and PubMed; and in the journals International Journal of Epidemiology, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, American Journal of Public Health and American Journal of Epidemiology from 2005 to 2018. We used the search terms “Social Determinants of health”, “Health services”, “health policies”, and “inequity”. We identified 1,164 articles, of which 19 were selected. The structural determinants, also called social markers, were race, gender, gender identity, migration and social class. Theoretical perspectives of these articles, directly or indirectly, assumed health as a right. The proposed health policies focused on the positive effect of planning functions, training of service providers, and reduction of barriers to access and participation of excluded groups on equity. We concluded that the scientific literature reinforces that every individual must have the capacity to reach a personal ideal state of health without any distinction of race, skin color, religion, language, nationality, socioeconomic resources, genre, sexual orientation, gender identity, physical, mental or emotional disability, or any other characteristic linked to discrimination or exclusion from social and political opportunities.

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Author Biographies

Anna Larice Meneses Galvão, Universidade de São Paulo

Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva. São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Elda Oliveira, Universidade de São Paulo

Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva. São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Escola Paulista de Enfermagem. São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Ana Claudia Camargo Gonçalves Germani, Universidade de São Paulo

Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva. São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Olinda do Carmo Luiz, Universidade de São Paulo

Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva. São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Published

2021-06-02

How to Cite

Galvão, A. L. M., Oliveira, E., Germani, A. C. C. G., & Luiz, O. do C. (2021). Structural determinants of health, race, gender, and social class: a scope review. Saúde E Sociedade, 30(2). https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-12902021200743

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Section

Articles