Gene expression profile of Protamines and Transition Nuclear Proteins in bovine testis
Keywords:Bull, Spermatozoa, Protamine, Real time RT-PCR
AbstractProtamines (PRM) are the major DNA-binding proteins in the sperm nucleus and can pack the DNA into less than 5% of the volume of a somatic cell nucleus. It is already known that bulls only have the PRM1 protein on mature spermatozoa while most mammals also have the PRM2. Transition nuclear proteins (Tnps) and PRMs are fundamental to DNA integrity. It has already been reported the influence of PRM on chromatin structures, generating low fertility. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. The relative expression of PRM1, PRM2, PRM3, Tnp1 and Tnp2 was determined by real time RT-PCR, using bovine specific primers and β-actin as endogenous control. Quantification of mRNA relative expression showed a higher expression of PRM1 compared to the other genes. The PRM3 mRNA had the lowest relative expression. A significant (p < 0.05) and positive correlation was found between PRM1 and PRM2 (r = 0.518), PRM2 and Tnp1 (r = 0.750), PRM2 and Tnp2 (r = 0.706), PRM3 and Tnp1 (r = 0.542), PRM3 and Tnp2 (r = 0.731) and between Tnp1 and Tnp2 (r = 0.820). Since most of the knowledge about protamine 2 in bovine is based on a work from 1990 and according to new studies we know that PRM1 and PRM2 are important to bull fertility, more research is needed to elucidate the real function of protamines on bovines.
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