Comparison of methodologies for fat determination and evaluation of calcium and phosphorus content in snacks for dogs


  • Rafael Vessecchi Amorim Zafalon Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
  • Roberta Bueno Ayres Rodrigues Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
  • Renata Maria Consentino Conti Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
  • Mariana Pamplona Perini Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
  • Mariana Fragoso Rentas Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
  • Thiago Henrique Annibale Vendramini Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
  • Larissa Wunsche Risolia Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
  • Henrique Tobaro Macedo Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
  • Marcio Antonio Brunetto Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia



Acid hydrolysis, Ankom, Ethereal extract, Label, Minerals


In recent years, the relationship between humans and companion animals has tightened considerably and resulted in the expansion of the range of pet food industry products available in the market. In this context, snacks have gained greater popularity as pet owners seek to please their animals by providing such foods. Due to the growing importance of the snack segment, a need exists for accurate information on the nutritional composition of these products, such as fat concentration. No studies were found that evaluated the effectiveness of different methods applied for determining the content of this nutrient in dog snacks. In addition, too much mineral content can pose health risks. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare three methodologies for determining fat in pet snack products. The moisture, calcium and phosphorus content of each was also determined to compare the obtained results with each value stated on their product labels. Fat determination methods evaluated were ether extract (EE), ether extract after acid hydrolysis (EEHA), and fat content obtained from Ankom XT15 analyzer (ANKOM). Twenty-four snacks produced by 17 companies were evaluated. The results of the three methodologies were compared using the Tukey test. The comparison between the results of the laboratory analysis and the values stated on the labels was performed using descriptive statistics. There was no difference between the three methods evaluated (p = 0.34) regarding fat content. Regarding the nutritional compliance of the labels, 25% (n = 6) of the snacks presented higher moisture content than the declared amount, 50% (n = 12) presented lower fat content, 25% (n = 6) lower phosphorus content and, in 50% (n = 12), the calcium content was not within the minimum and maximum range stated on the label. Therefore, due to the absence of difference between the results, any of the three fat determination methodologies could be used. Regarding compliance of labels for calcium, phosphorus and fat content, greater control over the nutritional composition of these foods is required since most pet owners tend to supply large quantities of snacks to dogs, leading to excessive daily energy intake.


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How to Cite

Zafalon RVA, Rodrigues RBA, Conti RMC, Perini MP, Rentas MF, Vendramini THA, et al. Comparison of methodologies for fat determination and evaluation of calcium and phosphorus content in snacks for dogs. Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. [Internet]. 2020 Jun. 17 [cited 2024 Apr. 14];57(2):e159691. Available from: