Investigation of Feline calicivirus infection in cats with upper respiratory tract disease in Diyarbakir, Turkey

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2021.177172

Keywords:

Feline calicivirus, Cat, PCR, Upper respiratory tract disease

Abstract

Feline calicivirus is among the most common pathogenic microorganisms in upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) and oral lesions of cats. It leads to stomatitis, oral ulceration, ocular and nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, fever, lameness, anorexia, hypersalivation, pneumonia, respiratory distress, coughing, and depression in infected cats. This study aimed to determine the role of Feline calicivirus (FCV) in cats with the upper respiratory tract disease in the Diyarbakir region, Turkey, to provide treatment for infected cats and contribute to the disease prophylaxis. The study material consisted of 10 cats (control group) considered to be healthy according to the clinical examination and 20 cats with URTD that were not vaccinated against Feline calicivirus infection of different breeds, ages, and genders brought to Dicle University Veterinary Faculty Prof. Dr. Servet SEKIN Polyclinic with URTD. After routine clinical examinations of the animals, oral and conjunctival swabs and blood samples were taken. Hematological and biochemical analyzes of blood samples were performed. Swab samples were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the diagnosis of the agent. Oral lesions, hypersalivation, ocular and nasal discharge, coughing, and breathing difficulties were seen in clinical examinations of cats with URTD. Feline calicivirus was detected in only one cat’s conjunctival swab sample in PCR analyses. As a result, we found that Feline calicivirus infection was present in cats with URTD in the Diyarbakir region, and 5% positivity was found in cats with clinical symptoms according to PCR analysis.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abayli H, Can-Sahna K, Ozbek R, Karaca BI. Feline Calicivirus Prevalance among cats in Turkey’s Kayseri province. Isr J Vet Med. 2020;75(2):94-9.

Litster A. [Internet]. Feline calicivirus. 2015 [cited 2019 February]. Available from: https://www.cliniciansbrief.com/article/feline-calicivirus.

Battilani M, Vaccari F, Carelle MS, Morandi F, Benazzi C, Kipar A, Dondi F, Scagliarini A. Virulent feline calicivirus disease in a shelter in Italy: A Case Description. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95(1):283-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.01.025. PMid:23433681.

Berger A, Willi B, Meli ML, Boretti FS, Hartnack S, Dreyfus A, Lutz H, Hofmann-Lehmann R. Feline calicivirus and other respiratory pathogens in cats with Feline calicivirus-related symptoms and in clinically healthy cats in Switzerland. BMC Vet Res. 2015;11(1):282. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-015-0595-2. PMid:26566897.

Bilal T. Kedi-Köpek İç Hastalıkları. İstanbul, Türkiye: Nobel Kitabevleri Tic. Ltd. Şti; 2013. p. 132-49.

Chander Y, Tiwari AK, Sajja S, Ramakrishnan MA, Faaberg KS, Goyal SM. A TaqMan RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Feline calicivirus. Int J Virol. 2007;3:100-6. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijv.2007.100.106.

Cohn LA. Feline respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2011;41(6):1273-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2011.07.006. PMid:22041216.

Coyne KP, Reed FC, Porter CJ, Dawson S, Gaskell RM, Radford AD. Recombination of feline calicivirus within an endemically infected cat colony. J Gen Virol. 2006;87(Pt 4):921-6. https://doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.81537-0. PMid:16528041.

Dinnage JD, Scarlett JM, Richards JR. Descriptive epidemiology of feline upper respiratory tract disease in an animal shelter. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11(10):816-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2009.03.001. PMid:19782625.

Di Martino B, Di Francesco CE, Meridiani I, Marsilio F. Etiological investigation of multiple respiratory infections in cats. Microbiologica Bologna. 2007;30(4):455-61. PMid:18080682.

Edwards DS, Coyne K, Dawson S, Gaskell RM, Henley WE, Rogers K, Wood JLN. Risk factors for time to diagnosis of feline upper respiratory tract disease in UK animal adoption shelters. Prev Vet Med. 2008;87(3-4):327-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2008.05.005. PMid:18639946.

Gaskell RM, Dawson S, Radford A. Feline respiratory disease. In: Grene CE. Infectious diseases of dog and cat. 4th ed., USA: Saunders; 2012. p. 152-62.

Gaskell RM, Radford AD, Dawson S. Feline Infectious Respiratory Disease. In: Chandlerc EA, Gaskell CJ, Gaskell RM. Feline medicine and therapeutics. 3rd ed., Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 2004. p. 576-91. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470690727.ch22.

Gaskell RM, Gaskell CJ. An update on feline viral respiratory disease. Vet Q. 1997;19(suppl. 1):47. https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.1997.9694806.

Gerriets W, Joy N, Huebner-Guthardt J, Eule JC. Feline calicivirus: a neglected cause of feline ocular surface infections? Vet Ophthalmol. 2012;15(3):172-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2011.00957.x. PMid:22050669.

Gourkow N, Lawson JH, Hamon SC, Phillips CJC. Descriptive epidemiology of upper respiratory disease and associated risk factors in cats in an animal shelter in coastal western Canada. Can Vet J. 2013;54(2):132-8. PMid:23904635.

Hawkins EC. Respiratory System Disorders. In: Nelson RW, Couto CG. Small animal internal medicine. 4th ed. China: Elsevier; 2009. p. 207-351.

Helps CR, Lait P, Damhuis A, Björnehammar U, Bolta D, Brovida C, Chabanne L, Egberink H, Ferrand G, Fontbonne A, Pennisi MG, Gruffydd-Jones T, Gunn-Moore D, Hartmann K, Lutz H, Malandain E, Möstl K, Stengel C, Harbour DA, Graat EA. Factors associated with upper respiratory tract disease caused by feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, chlamydophila felis and bordotella bronchiseptica in cats: experience from 218 European catteries. Vet Rec. 2005;156(21):669-73. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.156.21.669. PMid:15908495.

Henzel A, Brum MCS, Lautert C, Martins M, Lovato LT, Weiblen R. Isolation and identification of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus in Southern Brazil. Braz J Microbiol. 2012;43(2):560-8. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822012000200017. PMid:24031864.

Hou J, Sánchez-Vizcaíno F, McGahie D, Lesbros C, Almeras T, Howarth D, O’Hara V, Dawson S, Radford AD. European molecular epidemiology and strain diversity of feline calicivirus. Vet Rec. 2016;178(5):114-5. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.103446. PMid:26811440.

Kang BT, Park HM. Prevalence of feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus and Chlamydophila felis in clinically normal cats at a Korean animal shelter. J Vet Sci. 2008;9(2):207-9. https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2008.9.2.207. PMid:18487944.

Marsilio F, Martino BD, Decaro N, Buonavoglia C. A novel nested PCR for the diagnosis of calicivirus infections in the cat. Vet Microbiol. 2005;105(1):1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2004.09.017. PMid:15607078.

Meli ML, Berger A, Willi B, Spiri AM, Riond B, Hofmann-Lehmann R. Molecular detection of feline calicivirus in clinical samples: A study comparing its detection by RT-qPCR directly from swabs and after virus isolation. J Virol Methods. 2018;251:54-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2017.10.001. PMid:28986291.

Najafi H, Madadgar O, Jamshidi S, Ghalyanchi Langeroudi A, Darzi Lemraski M. Molecular and clinical study on prevalence of feline herpesvirus type 1 and calicivirus in correlation with feline leukemia and immunodeficiency viruses. Vet Res Forum. 2014;5(4):255-61. PMid:25610576.

Norsworthy GD. The feline patient. 4th ed. Norsworthy, USA: Blackwell Publishing Limited; 2011. p. 62-4.

Pereira JJ, Baumworcel N, Fioretti JM, Domingues CF, Moraes LF, Marinho RSS, Vieira MCR, Pinto AMV, Castro TX. Molecular characterization of feline calicivirus variants from household and public animal shelter in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Braz. J. Microbiol. 2018;49:777-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2018.01.003.

Radford AD, Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, Egberink H, Frymus T, Gruffydd-Jones T, Hartmann K, Hosie MJ, Lloret A, Lutz H, Marsilio F, Pennisi MG, Thiry E, Truyen U, Horzinek MC. Feline calicivirus infection: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11(7):556-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfms.2009.05.004. PMid:19481035.

Radford AD, Bennett M, Mcardle F, Dawson S, Turner PC, Glenn MA, Gaskell RM. The use of squence analysis of a feline calicivirus (fcv) hypervariable region in the epidemiological investigation of fcv related disease and vaccine failures. Vaccine. 1997;15(12-13):1451-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(97)00059-5. PMid:9302760.

Radford AD, Coyne KP, Dawson S, Porter CJ, Gaskell RM. Feline calicivirus. Vet Res. 2007;38(2):319-35. https://doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2006056. PMid:17296159.

Radford AD, Sommerville L, Ryvar R, Cox MB, Johnson DR, Dawson S, Gaskell RM. Endemic infection of a cat colony with a feline calicivirus closely related to an isolate used in live attenuated vaccines. Vaccine. 2001;31(31):4358-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00191-8. PMid:11483259.

Sherding RG. Feline Infectious Respiratory Disease. In: Fathman L, Gower J. Manual of small animal practice. 3rd ed. USA: Saunders; 2006. p. 144-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-72-160422-6/50013-9.

Sykes JE, Allen JL, Studdert VP, Browning GF. Detection of feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus 1 and Chlamydia psittaci mucosal swabs by multiplex RT-PCR/PCR. Vet Microbiol. 2001;81(2):95-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1135(01)00340-6. PMid:11376956.

Tian J, Liu D, Liu Y, Wu H, Jiang Y, Zu S, Liu C, Sun X, Liu J, Qu L. Molecular characterization of a feline calicivirus isolated from tiger and its pathogenesis in cats. Vet Microbiol. 2016;192:110-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.07.005. PMid:27527772.

Turgut K. Veteriner Klinik Laboratuvar Teşhis. 2. ed. Konya, Türkiye: Bahcıvanlar Basım Sanayi AŞ. 2000. p. 2-15.

Wang K, Pei Z, Hu G. First report of Feline Calicivirus (FCV) infection in stray cats in northeast China. Pol J Vet Sci. 2017;20(3):595-8. https://doi.org/10.1515/pjvs-2017-0072. PMid:29166273.

Wong WT, Kelman M, Ward MP. Surveillance of upper respiratory tract disease in owned cats in Australia, 2009–2012. Prev Vet Med. 2013;112(1-2):150-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.07.003. PMid:23910025.

Downloads

Published

2021-06-03

How to Cite

Baksi, N., & Simsek, A. (2021). Investigation of Feline calicivirus infection in cats with upper respiratory tract disease in Diyarbakir, Turkey. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 58, e177172. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1678-4456.bjvras.2021.177172

Issue

Section

FULL ARTICLE