Prática do exercício físico no comprometimento cognitivo e intercorrências neuromusculares na atenção ao idoso: uma revisão sistemática

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2176-7262.rmrp.2023.212061

Palavras-chave:

Exercício, Disfunção cognitiva, Estudos de intervenção, Prevenção de doenças

Resumo

Objetivo: investigar a influência do exercício físico no comportamento cognitivo dos idosos e os programas de exercícios de maior impacto na resposta motora e adaptações neuromusculares. Método: desenvolveu-se uma revisão sistemática nas bases de dados Pubmed/MEDLINE, Scopus, LILACS, SPORTDiscus e Embase. Utilizou-se o PRISMA 2020 e análise de risco de viés através da escala Cochrane handbook para revisões sistemáticas de intervenções (Versão 5.1.0). Domínios da tabela 8.5.d Resultados: 21 estudos foram incluídos para análise qualitativa. A prática regular de exercício físico desencadeia uma série de adaptações neuromusculares positivas em pessoas
idosas. Essas adaptações estão relacionadas ao aumento da massa, força e potência muscular, favorecendo a capacidade cognitiva e motora. A mudança no estilo de vida do idoso apontou impacto significativo, e 30% do processo de envelhecimento é considerado natural e causado por fatores sensoriais, mentais, físicos e perda do autocontrole. No entanto, 70% dependem impreterivelmente do estilo de vida individual. Conclusão: O presente estudo sugere
um programa composto por exercícios combinados de força, resistência e aeróbicos. Tais exercícios promovem o aumento dos fatores neurotróficos, vascular e de crescimento, além de promover melhorias cognitivas, de humor e qualidade de vida ao envelhecer. Para tanto, a implementação de um programa de exercícios que envolva a pliometria e um treinamento resistido com intensidades mais altas (igual ou superior a 60% de 1-RM) e um volume
adequado e progressivo (igual ou superior a 3 sessões de 30-40 minutos por semana), parece ser promissor aos melhores desfechos cognitivos e psicomotores na terceira idade.

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Biografia do Autor

  • Jean Marlon Machado, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Movimento Humano, (SC), Brasil.

    Doutorando

  • Keyla Mara dos Santos , Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Movimento Humano, (SC), Brasil.

    Doutoranda

  • João Carlos Alves Bueno , Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Movimento Humano, (SC), Brasil

    Doutorando

  • Carolina Machado de Oliveira , Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Movimento Humano, (SC), Brasil

    Doutoranda

  • Sany Fernandes , Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Movimento Humano, (SC), Brasil.

    Doutoranda

  • Iramar Baptistella do Nascimento, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde e do Esporte, Florianópolis, (SC), Brasil

    Doutor

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2023-12-18

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1.
Machado JM, Santos KM dos, Bueno JCA, Oliveira CM de, Fernandes S, Nascimento IB do. Prática do exercício físico no comprometimento cognitivo e intercorrências neuromusculares na atenção ao idoso: uma revisão sistemática. Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) [Internet]. 18º de dezembro de 2023 [citado 20º de maio de 2024];56(4):e-212061. Disponível em: https://www.revistas.usp.br/rmrp/article/view/212061