Food Clock

Mechanisms of Circadian Food Entrainment

  • Breno Tercio Carneiro Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
  • Mario André Leocadio-Miguel Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
  • John Fontenele-Araujo Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
Palavras-chave: Food anticipatory activity, Food entrained oscillator (FEO), Food availability, Anticipatory behavior

Resumo

A ritmicidade circadiana é um aspecto comum nos seres vivos, sendo o ciclo claro-escuro de 24h seu sincronizador ambiental mais evidente. A disponibilidade de alimento se constitui também como um sincronizador ambiental para muitas espécies. Em mamíferos, o aumento da locomoção, da vigília e da temperatura central nas horas que antecedem uma oportunidade de alimentação caracterizam a sincronização por alimento, controlada por um oscilador circadiano independente do oscilador fótico (núcleo supraquiasmático). Apesar da sincronização circadiana à alimentação ser bem caracterizada comportamentalmente, não há ainda uma identificação precisa do substrato físico deste oscilador. Nos últimos anos, a sincronização de órgãos periféricos e diversas áreas do sistema nervoso central aos horários de alimentação tem sido descrita, sugerindo uma organização complexa do substrato físico por trás da sincronização por alimento. Nesta revisão, apresentamos as principais características e propriedades da sincronização por alimento. Além disso, discutimos também potenciais mecanismos fisiológicos que promovem a sincronização, dentro da perspectiva de um sistema circadiano multioscilatório.

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Biografia do Autor

Mario André Leocadio-Miguel, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Doutor em Ciências (Fisiologia Humana) pelo Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas da Universidade de São Paulo. Pesquisador na área de fisiologia humana e psicofisiologia, tem como foco o estudo da relação entre a organização temporal do organismo humano, a privação de sono, aspectos atencionais e de equilíbrio autonômico (risco cardiovascular). Experiência na área das relações entre os aspectos ontogenéticos da expressão dos ritmos biológicos e a capacidade de estimar a passagem do tempo em indivíduos adultos jovens e aposentados e a interação entre o Jet Lag Social e desempenho cognitivo. Possui experiência nas abordagens moleculares e comportamentais dos ritmos biológicos, além da psicofisiologia aplicada ao estudo da atenção e resposta autonômica. Atualmente coordena projeto de pesquisa com foco no entendimento do impacto da pressão do sono sobre atenção, desempenho e risco cardiovascular em jovens universitários.

John Fontenele-Araujo, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte

Atualmente sou professor titular do programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicobiologia (Conceito 6 - CAPES - Área de Psicologia e professor de Neurofisiologia e Cronobiologia no departamento de Fisiologia. Fiz a graduação em Medicina na Universidade Federal do Piauí (1991), e o mestrado e doutorado em Psicologia (Área de Concentração Neurociências e Comportamento) no Instituto de Psicologia da Universidade de São Paulo, mas desenvolvi meus projetos de pesquisa no GMDRB do Departamento de Fisiologia do ICB da USP. Meu mestrado foi um estudo teórico em Cronobiologia, onde sistematizei o conceito de Intermodulação de Frequências e no doutorado um estudo sobre o papel do metabolismo no Sistema de Sincronização Circadiana. Em 2002 fiz estágio de pós-doutorado no Grupo de Cronobiologia da Universidade de Barcelona, e desde então mantenho forte colaboração este grupo onde estudamos os mecanismos funcionais e as implicações comportamentais da dissociação da ritmicidade biológica. Sou pesquisador do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico. Atualmente faço pesquisa sobre fisiologia do Sistema Circadiano, sobre o papel do Sistema circadiano na memória e na emoção, destacando aqui o papel do ciclo sono-vigília na memória e na aprendizagem bem como o papel dos sistema circadiano nas doenças afetivas, em especial na depressão na desordem bipolar. Estes estudos são realizados em modelos animais, roedores e primatas e também em modelos humanos. Além disso, temos uma forte colaboração com grupos de pesquisa na área clínica, em especial a neurologia e a fisioterapia e também com pesquisadores da área de exatas, em estudos com modelos matemáticos e análises da dinâmica de séries temporais do ciclo sono-vigília. No ensino, dedico-me à neurofisiologia e neurobiologia do sono em nível de graduação e pós-graduação, além do estudo de metodologias ativas centradas no estudante para o curso de medicina, e faço parte do Núcleo Docente Estruturante do curso de medicina-UFRN. Fui membro de CEP-UFRN e coordenador da CEUA da UFRN. Atualmente sou Secretário Regional da SBPC-RN. Sou também Ciclista e um ativista do movimento de ciclomobilidade além de gostar de fazer cicloturismo. (Texto informado pelo autor)

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2019-04-05
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