The destruction of the silver pipes from Ur: a new proposal

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2448-1750.revmae.2023.210884

Palavras-chave:

Mesopotamia, Período Dinástico III, Tubos de Prata de Ur, Dumuzi/Tammuz, ruptura ritual

Resumo

Este artigo propõe que os tubos de prata encontrados no Cemitério Real de Ur (ca. 2450 a.C.) foram intencionalmente tornados impróprios para uso após terem sido usados para tocar música durante a procissão funerária que levou ao sepultamento do falecido na Sepultura Privada 333. Com base em evidências arqueológicas e cuneiformes da Mesopotâmia, assim como breves observações comparativas, sugere-se que a razão para isto foi para que os espíritos que viviam dentro deste instrumento de sopro não pudessem, em algum momento no futuro, perturbar os vivos.

Downloads

Os dados de download ainda não estão disponíveis.

Biografia do Autor

  • Daniel Sánchez Muñoz, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Universidad de Granada

    Assyriologist focusing on Early Mesopotamia but with an international education, research covering the whole Ancient World and teaching experience. I seek to broaden my vision of the Ancient World, strength my research and teaching record and consolidate my Assyriological profile.

Referências

Attinger, P. 2021a. Glossaire sumérien-français principalement des textes littéraires pa-léobabyloniens. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.

Attinger, P. 2021b. La descente d’Innana dans le monde infernal (1.4.1). Available in: <https://abre.ai/hfjG>. Access in: 09/11/2023.

BDTNS. Base de Datos de Textos Neo-Sumerios. Available in: <http://bdtns.filol.csic.es/>. Access in: 19/11/2023.

Bjorkman, J.K. 1994. Hoards and deposits in Bronze Age Mesopotamia (Ph.D. Disserta-tion), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Bjøru, Ø.; Pat-El, N. 2020. The historical syntax of the subordinative morphemes in As-syrian Akkadian. ZA 110(1): 71-83.

Bonghi Jovino, M. 2007. La tromba-lituo di Tarquinia nel suo contesto di rinvenimento. Aristonothos 1: 1-10.

Braun, J. 2002. Music in Ancient Israel/Palestine: Archaeological, written, and compara-tive sources. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids; Cam-bridge.

Catagnoti A. 1989. I NE.DI nei testi amministrativi degli Archivi di Ebla. In: Fronzaroli, P. (Ed.) Miscellanea Eblaitica 2 (Quaderni di Semitistica 16), Florence University, Florence, 149-201.

Cheng, J. 2009. A review of Early Dynastic III Music: Man’s animal call. JNES 68(3): 163-178.

Cohen, A.C. 2005. Death rituals, ideology, and the development of Early Mesopotamian Kingship: Toward a new understanding of Iraq’s Royal Cemetery of Ur (AMD 7). Brill, Leiden.

Cohen, M.E. 1981. Sumerian Hymnology: The Eršemma (HUCA Supp. 2). Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati.

Collaer, P.; Elsner, J. 1983. Musikgeschichte in Bildern: Nordafrika (Musikethnologie 1/8). Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig.

Collinson, F. 1975. The Bagpipe: The history of a musical instrument. Routledge Library Editions (Scotland), Edinburgh.

Dalley, S. 1988. Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh, and Oth-ers. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

DeVale, S.C. 1988. Musical instruments and ritual: A systematic approach. Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society 14: 126-160.

Ellison, R. et al. 1978. Some food offerings from Ur excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley and previously unpublished. Journal of Archaeological Science 5(2): 167-177.

Frahm, E. 2003. (Review of) T.N.D. Mettinger, The Riddle of Resurrection: “Dying and Rising Gods” in the Ancient Near East (Stockholm 2001). ZA 93: 294-300.

Gabbay, U. 2014. Pacifying the Heart of the Gods: Sumerian Emesal Prayers of the First Millennium BC (Heidelberger Emesal Studien 1). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden.

Galpin, F.W. 1937. The music of the Sumerians and their immediate Successors the Bab-ylonians and Assyrians. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Gänsicke, S.; Hagel, S. 2017. The auloi from Meroë: Preliminary notes on the conserva-tion, technical examination, and interpretation of a cache of ancient musical in-struments. In: Daehner, J.M.; Lapatin, K.; Spinelli, S. (Eds.). Artistry in Bronze: The Greeks and Their Legacy (19th International Congress on Ancient Bronzes). Getty Publications, Los Angeles, 381-388.

Hartmann, H. 1960. Die Musik der sumerischen Kultur. Ph.D. Dissertation. Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main.

Hauptmann, A. et al. 2018. Types of gold, types of silver: The composition of precious metal artifacts found in the Royal Tombs of Ur, Mesopotamia. ZA 18(1):100-131.

Hermann, G. 1968. Lapis Lazuli: The early phases of its trade. Iraq 30(1): 21-57.

Jaques, M. 2006. Le vocabulaire des sentiments dans les textes sumériens: Recherche sur le lexique sumérien et akkadien (AOAT 332), Ugarit-Verlag, Münster.

Johnson, H.M. 1996. Koto manufacture: The instrument, construction process, and aes-thetic considerations. The Galpin Society Journal 49: 38-64.

Karahashi, F. 2000. Sumerian compound verbs with body-part terms. Ph.D. Dissertation. The University of Chicago, Chicago.

Koitabashi, M. 1998. Music in the texts from Ugarit. UF 30: 363-396.

Krispijn, T.J.H. 1990. Beiträge zur altorientalischen Musikforschung: 1. Šulgi und die Musik, Akkadica 70: 1-27.

Krispijn, T.J.H. 2010. Music in the Syrian city of Ebla in the Late Third Millennium B.C. In: Dumbrill, R.J.; Finkel, I.L. (Eds.). Proceedings of the International Con-ference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (Iconea 2009-2010), Université de la Sorbonne, Paris, and Senate House, School of Musical Research, University of London, November 2009 and December 2010, Iconea, London, 55-61.

Kutzer, E.R. 2017. The socio-cultural value and function of music: On musical instru-ments and their performances in Mesopotamia of the 3rd millennium BCE from archaeological, iconographical and philological perspective. Master Thesis. Uni-versiteit Leiden, Leiden.

Lapinkivi, P. 2010. The Neo-Assyrian myth of Ištar’s descent and resurrection (SAACT 6). Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, Helsinki.

Lawergren, B. 2000. Extant silver pipes from Ur, 2450 BC. In: Hickmann, E. (Ed.). Studien zur Musikarchäologie 2. Marie Leidorf, Rahden, 121-132.

Lawergren, B. 2010. Bull lyres, silver lyres, silver pipes and animals in Sumer. In: Dum-brill, R.J.; Finkel, I.L. (Eds.). Proceedings of the International Conference of Near Eastern Archaeomusicology (Iconea 2008), The British Museum, London, December 4-6, 2008. Iconea Publications, London, 83-88.

Maniquet, C. 2008. Les carnyx du dépôt cultuel du sanctuaire gaulois de Tintignac à Naves (Corrèze). In: Both, A.A. et al.(Eds.). Studin zur Musikarchäologie VI (OrA 22). Marie Leidorf Verlag, Rahden, 57-76.

Manniche, L. 1974. Ancient Egyptian Musical Instruments (Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 34), Deutscher Kunstverlag, München.

Nissen, H.J. 1970. Grabungen in den Planquadraten K/L XII in Uruk-Warka, BagM 5: 101-191.

Oates, J. 1978. Religion and ritual in sixth-millennium B.C. Mesopotamia. World Ar-chaeology 10(2): 117-124.

Oshima, T.; Wasserman, N. 2021. Forgotten dais, scattered temple: Old Babylonian Ak-kadian lament to mamma and its historical context. AfO 54: 267-282.

Pilch, J.J. 2007. Flute players, death, and music in the afterlife (Matthew 9:18-19, 23- 26). Biblical Theology Bulletin 37: 12-19.

Quenet, P. 2018. Luxe et transgression dans les cités-États sud-mésopotamiennes (3100-2350 av. J.-C.) d’après quelques séries d’objets en coquille. KTÈMA Civilisations de l’Orient, de la Grèce et de Rome Antiques 43 (dossier: Luxe et richesse dans l’Antiquité et à Byzance): 5-34.

Rašīd, Ṣ.A. 1984. Musikgeschichte in Bildern: Mesopotamien (Musik des Altertums 2). Deutscher Verlag für Musik, Leipzig.

Reisman, D. 1976. A «royal» hymn of Išbi-Erra to the goddess Nisaba. In: Eichler, B.L. (Ed.). Kramer anniversary volume: Cuneiform studies in honor of Samuel Noah Kramer (AOAT 25). Ugarit-Verlag, Münster, 357-365.

Rimmer, J. 1969. Ancient musical instruments of Western Asia in the Department of Western Asiatic Antiquities. The British Museum, London.

Sachs, C. 1943. The rise of music in the Ancient World, East and West. Dover, New York.

Schmidt-Colinet, C. 1981. Die Musikinstrumente in der Kunst des Alten Orients. Archäologisch-philologische Studien. Bouvier Verlag Herbet Grundmann, Bonn.

Shehata, D. 2009. Musiker und ihr vokales Repertoire. Untersuchungen zu Inhalt und Organisation von Musikerberufen und Liedgattungen in altbabylonischer Zeit (GBAO 3). Universitätsverlag Göttingen, Göttingen.

Spycket, A. 1972. La musique instrumentale mésopotamienne. Journal des Savants, 1972/3: 153-209.

Stauder, W. 1970. Die Musik der Sumerer, Babylonier und Assyrer. In: Hickmann, H.; Stauder, W. (Eds.). Orientalische Musik (HdOr 1.4). Brill, Leiden; Köln, 171- 244.

Tobler, A.J. 1950. Excavations at Tepe Gawra. Volume II: Levels IX-XX. University Mu-seum by the University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia; Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Westenholz, J.G. 1997. Legends of the Kings of Akkade. The Texts (MC 7). Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake.

Wilcke, C. 2000. Wer las und schrieb in Babylonien und Assyrien. Überlegungen zur Literalität im Alten Zweistromland (BAW. Philosophisch-historische Klasse 6), Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, München.

Woolley, L. 1934. Ur Excavations II. The Royal Cemetery: A Report on the Predynastic and Sargonid Graves Excavated Between 1926 and 1931. Trustees of the British Museum, London.

Zand, K. 2020. Die Schlussdoxologien der literarischen Texte aus Fāra und Tell Abū Ṣalābīḫ. In: Arkhipov, I. et al. (Eds.). The third millennium: Studies in early Mes-opotamia and Syria in honor of Walter Sommerfeld and Manfred Krebernik (CM 50). Brill, Leiden, 730-751.

Zettler, R.L. 1990. Metalworkers in the economy of Mesopotamia in the Late Third Mil-lennium B.C. In: Miller, N.F. (Ed.). Economy and Settlement in the Near East: Analysis of Ancient Sites and Materials. Masca; University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 85-87.

Downloads

Publicado

2023-12-29

Como Citar

MUÑOZ, Daniel Sánchez. The destruction of the silver pipes from Ur: a new proposal. Revista do Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia, São Paulo, Brasil, n. 41, p. 62–74, 2023. DOI: 10.11606/issn.2448-1750.revmae.2023.210884. Disponível em: https://www.revistas.usp.br/revmae/article/view/210884.. Acesso em: 25 jun. 2024.